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Summaries for deriving FBDGs for food groups, meal and dietary patterns

The sections below summarize the evidence for setting science advice for FBDGs for all the food groups, meal and dietary patterns. The text in the sections on dietary intakes is mainly based on the background paper by Lemming and Pitsi (2022). The text in the sections on health effects are based on qualified systematic reviews (see Table 2), emphasizing conclusions with  strong evidence (convincing and probable evidence), and the corresponding background papers (see Table 4). The text in the sections on environmental effects is mainly based on four background papers discussing the environmental impacts of human food consumption (Benton et al., 2022; Harwatt et al., 2023; Meltzer et al., 2023; Trolle et al., 2023). While the science advice is partly based on the corresponding background papers, the NNR2023 Committee has the sole responsibility for the text in all sections, including the science advice for all FBDGs. All final science advice for FBDGs were set unanimously by the NNR2023 Committee.
Food intakes should not be interpreted as absolute, since they are uncertain and depend on, food consumption, but also survey methods, reporting errors, countries’ food databases, calculation procedures etc. The range of average intakes in the Nordic and Baltic countries is given.