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NORDIC NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS 2023

APPENDIX


Appendix 1. Experts involved in the NNR project

Name, affiliation, country
Role
 
Agneta Hörnell, UmU, SE
Author "Infant feeding"
Agneta Oskarsson, SLU, SE
Author "Manganese", "Molybdenum"
Agneta Sjöberg, UoG, SE
Author "Iron", "Human body weight, nutrients and foods: a scoping review"
Agneta Åkesson, KI, SE
Author 9 de novo systematic reviews
Alfons Ramel, UoI, IS
Author 9 de novo systematic reviews
Alicja Wolk, KI, SE
Author "Phytochemicals and antioxidants"
Referee "Meat and meat products"
Allan Linneberg, GUH, DK
Author "Vitamin K"
Almantas Kranauskas, MH, LT
NNR2023 Observer
Amanda MacFarlane, HC, CA
Referee NNR2023 report and methodology background papers
Amanda Wood, SRC, SE
Workshop participant "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region", Resource group "Moving food production and consumption toward sustainable diets in the Nordics: Challenges and opportunities"
Amund Måge, HI, NO
Author "Moving food production and consumption toward sustainable diets in the Nordics: Challenges and opportunities"
Ane Sørlie Kværner, UoO, NO
Scientific secretary
Anete Dudele, UoI, IS
Author systematic reviews in the NNR-EFSA collaborating project
Anette Hjartåker, UoO, NO
Referee "Chromium", "Molybdenum"
Anitra Carr, OU, NZ
Author "Vitamin C"
Anna Bergström, KI, SE
Referee "Phytochemicals and antioxidants", "Breastfeeding"
Anna Karin Lindroos, SFA, SE
Referee "Sweets and confectionaries", "Meals patterns"
Anne Høyer-Lund, NDH, NO
Scientific secretary
Anne Juul Skjetne, UoO, NO
Pre-project coordinator
Anne Lise Brantsæter, NIPH, NO
Author "Iodine"
Anne Pøhl Enevoldsen, FVST, DK
NNR2023 Steering group member
Anne Scott, FVST, DK
NNR2023 Steering group member
Anne-Lise Bjørke Monsen, UoB, NO
Author "Vitamin B6", "Folate", "Vitamin B12"
Anne-Marja Pajari, UoH, FI
Author "Dietary fibre", "Protein"
Reference group member "Assessing the environmental sustainability of diets – an overview of approaches and identification of 5 key considerations for comprehensive assessments"
Ann-Karin Olsen, NIPH, NO
Author "Selenium"
Ann-Kristin Skrindo Knutsen, NIPH, NO
Author "The burden of diet related diseases and dietary risk factors in the Nordic and Baltic countries: a systematic analysis of the global burden of diseases, injuries and risk factors study 2021"
Anthea Van Parys, UoB, NO
Referee "Choline"
Antti Jula, Fimnet, FI
Author "Sodium", "Potassium"
Arja Lyytinen, UEF, FI
Author "Vitamin K"
Asim Duttaroy, UoO, NO
Referee "Vitamin E"
Audun Korsæth, NIBIO, NO
Workshop participant "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Beate Stokke Solvik, UoB, NO
Author "Biotin"
Benjamin Clarsen, NIPH, NO
Author "The burden of diet related diseases and dietary risk factors in the Nordic and Baltic countries: a systematic analysis of the global burden of diseases, injuries and risk factors study 2021"
Birna Thorisdottir, UoI, IS
Author 9 de novo systematic reviews
Bjørg Mikkelsen, FFVA, Faroe Islands
NNR2023 Observer
Bob van Oort, CICERO, NO
Author and workshop participant "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Referee "Integrating sustainability into Food Based Dietary Guidelines in the Nordic countries", "Moving food production and consumption toward sustainable diets in the Nordics: Challenges and opportunities", reference group member "Assessing the environmental sustainability of diets – an overview of approaches and identification of 5 key considerations for comprehensive assessments"
Bright Nwaru, UoG, SE
Author 9 de novo systematic reviews
Bruna Miguel, CH, UK
Workshop participant "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Bryndís Eva Birgisdóttir, UoI, IS
Co author and workshop participant "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region", Author systematic reviews in the NNR-EFSA collaborating project
Referee "Carbohydrates", "Dietary fibre"
Caroline Filskov Petersen, UoC, DK
Author systematic reviews in the NNR-EFSA collaborating project
Christel Lamberg-Allardt, UH, FI
Author "Phosphorus", 9 de novo systematic reviews
Referee "Vitamin D"
Christine Delisle, KI, SE
Author "Fruit juice", "Potatoes"
Christine Henriksen, UoO, NO
Author "Magnesium", "Copper", "Chromium"
Corné van Dooren, WWF, NL
Author "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Cornelia Witthöft, LU, SE
Referee "Folate", "Vegetables, fruits and berries", "Potatoes", "Fruit juice", "Pulses"
Author systematic reviews in the NNR-EFSA collaborating project
Dag S Thelle, UoO, NO
Author "Alcohol"
Dagfinn Aune, ICL, UK
Statistical consultant
David Smith, UoO, UK
Referee "Thiamin", "Folate", "Vitamin B12"
Davy Vanham, JRC, IT
Workshop participant "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Dena Alavi, UoO, NO
Referee "Alcohol", "Biotin", "Pantothenic acid"
Dominique Turck, LU, FR
Referee NNR2023 report and methodology background papers
Ebba Nexø, AaU, DK
Referee "Vitamin B12"
Eirin Bar, NTNU, NO
Workshop participant "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Elin Röös, SLU, SE
Workshop participant "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region", Resource group "Moving food production and consumption toward sustainable diets in the Nordics: Challenges and opportunities"
Elinor Hallström, RISE, SE
Reference group member "Assessing the environmental sustainability of diets – an overview of approaches and identification of 5 key considerations for comprehensive assessments", Referee "Integrating sustainability into Food Based Dietary Guidelines in the Nordic countries", "Moving food production and consumption toward sustainable diets in the Nordics: Challenges and opportunities"
Elisabet Rothenberg, KU, SE
Referee "Protein"
Ellen Trolle, DTU, DK
NNR2023 Committee member
Elling Bere, UoA, NO
Author "Ultraprocessed foods"
Emilie Helte, KI, SE
Referee "Calcium", "Magnesium", "Fluoride"
Emily Sonestedt, LU, SE
Author "Carbohydrates", "Beverages", "Milk and diary", "Sweets and confectionaries"
Erik Kristoffer Arnesen, UoO, NDH, NO
Author "Copper", 9 de novo systematic reviews
Scientific advisor in the NNR project
Essi Marjatta Hantikainen, ER, IT
Author "Vitamin E"
Eva Warensjö Lemming, SFA, SE
NNR2023 Committee member
Filippa Juul, KI, SE
Author "Ultraprocessed foods"
Folasade Adebayo, UoH, FI
Author systematic reviews in the NNR-EFSA collaborating project
Fredrik Jernerén, UU, SE
Referee "Thiamin", "Riboflavin", "Niacin", "Vitamin B6"
Fredrik Rosqvist, UoU, SE
Author "Fat and fatty acids", "Fats and oils"
Referee "Eggs"
Fredrik Söderlund, KI, SE
Author 9 de novo systematic reviews
Frode A Norheim, UoO, NO
Referee "Copper"
GBD collaboration group (TBA)
Author "The burden of diet related diseases and dietary risk factors in the Nordic and Baltic countries: a systematic analysis of the global burden of diseases, injuries and risk factors study 2021"
Gigja Gunnarsdottir, DH, IS
Pre-project participant
Giota Mitrou, WCRF, UK
Referee NNR2023 report and methodology background papers
Gry Hay, NDH, NO
Referee "Iron", "Breastfeeding"
Gun Brit Knutssön, KI, SE
Research librarian
Guri Skeie, UiT, NO
Author "Cereals"
Hanna Eneroth, SFA, SE
NNR2023 Committee member
Hanna Karlsson, SLU, SE
Workshop participant "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Hanna Lagström, TUH, FI
Author "Infant feeding"
Hanna Sara Strandler, SLV, SE
Author "Thiamin", "Riboflavin"
Referee "Niacin"
Hanna Tuomisto, LUKE, FI
Author and workshop participant "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Hanne Fjærdingby Olsen, NMBU, NO
Resource group "Moving food production and consumption toward sustainable diets in the Nordics: Challenges and opportunities"
Harald Carlsen, NMBU, NO
Author "Dietary fibre"
Referee "Vitamin A", "phytochemicals and antioxidants"
Helen Harwatt, CH, UK
Author "Assessing the environmental sustainability of diets – an overview of approaches and identification of 5 key considerations for comprehensive assessments", "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Helene Bertheus Forslund, GU, SE
Author "Meal patterns"
Heli Kuusipalo, FIHW, FI
Pre-project participant
Helle Margrete Meltzer, NIPH, NO
NNR2023 Committee member
Henna Peltonen, UoH, FI
Author systematic reviews in the NNR-EFSA collaborating project
Henna Vepsäläinen, UoH, FI
Author "Sweets and confectionaries", "Dietary patterns"
Henriette Øien, NDH, NO
NNR2023 Steering group member (head)
Hilde Brekke, UoO, NO
Referee "Energy", "Phosphorus"
Hilde Strømme, UoO, NO
Research librarian
Hólmfríður Þorgeirsdóttir, DoH, IS
NNR2023 Steering group member
Haakon Meyer, FHI, NO
Author "Vitamin D"
Iben Kristensen, FVST, DK
NNR2023 Steering group member
Ieva Gudanavičienė, MH, LT
NNR2023 Observer
Inese Siksna, IFS, LV
NNR2023 Observer
Inga Þórsdóttir, UoI, IS
NNR2023 Committee member
Inge Tetens, UoC, DK
Referee "Biotin", "Pantothenic acid", "Selenium", "Manganese", "Molybdemum"
Author systematic reviews in the NNR-EFSA collaborating project
Inger Öhlund, UO, SE
Referee "Vitamin D"
Inger-Lise Steffensen, NIPH, NO
Referee "Potassium"
Ingibjörg Gunnarsdottir, UoI, IS
Author "Iodine"
Iris Erlund, THL, FI
Referee "Iodine"
Jacob Juel Christensen, UoO, NO
NNR2023 Committee member
Jan Alexander, NIPH, NO
Autho "Selenium"
Jan Bengtsson, SLU, SE
Author and workshop participant "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Jan Olav Aaseth, IH, NO
Author "Magnesium"
Referee "Selenium", "Copper", "Chromium"
Jelena Meinliä, UoH, FI
Author "Meat and meatproducts", "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region", "Integrating sustainability into Food Based Dietary Guidelines in the Nordic countries"
Jens Lykkesfeldt, UoC, DK
Author "Vitamin C"
Jette Jakobsen, DTU, DK
Referee "Vitamin E"
Joao Breda, WHO, DK
Referee NNR2023 report and methodology background papers
Johanna E Torfadottir, UoI, IS
Author "Calcium", "Fish and seafood",
Referee "Milk and dairy products"
Johanna Tilkanen, CH, UK
Workshop participant "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Josefin Edvall Löfvenborg, SFA, SE
Referee "Beverages"
Joseph Lau, BU, US
Referee NNR2023 report and methodology background papers
Juha Helenius, UoH, FI
Author "Moving food production and consumption toward sustainable diets in the Nordics: Challenges and opportunities"
Jutta Dierkes, UoB, NO
Author 9 de novo systematic reviews
Jyrki K. Virtanen, UEF, FI
Author "Meat and meatproducts", "Eggs",
Jøran Hjelmesæth, HSØ, NO
Author "Human body weight, nutrients, and foods: a scoping review"
Jørgen Eivind Olesen, AU, DK
Author "Moving food production and consumption toward sustainable diets in the Nordics: Challenges and opportunities"
Jaana Lindström, THL, FI
Author "Dietary patterns"
Karin Leander, KI, SE
Referee "Alcohol"
Katja Borodulin, AI, FI
Author "Physical activity: associations with health and summary of guidelines", pre-project participant
Kerry Ann Brown, LSHTM, UK
Author and workshop participant "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Kirsi Laitinen, FIHW, FI
Referee "Fish and seafood", "Breastfeeding"
Kirsten Holven, UoO, NO
Author "Milk and dairy products"
Kirsti Uusi-Rasi, UKK, FI
Author "Calcium"
Kjetil Retterstøl, UoO, NO
Author "Fat and fatty acids"
Klas Wetterberg, CH, UK
Workshop participant "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Klaus Mittenzwei, Ruralis, NO
Reference group member "Assessing the environmental sustainability of diets – an overview of approaches and identification of 5 key considerations for comprehensive assessments"
Kyla Shea, Tufts, US
Referee "Vitamin E"
Lars Ellegård, GU, SE
Author "Energy"
Lars Rejnmark, ÅU, DK
Referee "Calcium", "Phosphorus"
Lars T. Fadnes
Author "Cereals, "Vegetables, fruits and berries", Pulses", "Nuts"
Lāsma Pikele, MHRL, LV
NNR2023 Observer
Lasse Sommer Mikkelsen, UoC, DK
Author systematic reviews in the NNR-EFSA collaborating project
Lena Hulthén, GU, SE
Referee "Iron"
Lieselotte Cloetens, LU, SE
Author "Energy"
Referee "Cereals"
Linnea Bärebring, GU, SE
Author 9 de novo systematic reviews
Lisa von Huth Smith, DHA, DK
Pre-project participant
Lisbeth Dahl, IMR, NO
Referee "Zinc"
Lise Madsen, UiB, NO
Referee "Protein"
Liv Elin Torheim, NIPH, NO
Author "Pulses"
Referee "Zinc", "Cereals", "Meat and meat products"
Lotte Holm, UoC, DK
Author "Social and economic dimensions of food sustainability – summary of the SAPEA report"
Magdalena Rosell, KI, SE
Author "Vegetables, fruits and berries", "Potatoes", "Nuts", "Fruit juice"
Magnus Domellöf, UU, SE
Author "Iron"
Magritt Brustad, UiT, NO
Author "Vitamin D"
Maijaliisa Erkkola, UoH, FI
NNR2023 Committee member
Maja Bjørkevoll, UoB, NO
Author "Pantothenic acid"
Mari Myhrstad, OsloMet, NO
Author "Phytochemicals and antioxidants"
Referee "Vitamin C"
Maria Kipler, KI, SE
Author "Manganese", "Molybdedum", "Fluoride"
Maria Lankinen, UoEF, FI
Referee "Fat and fatty acids", "Fats and oils"
Maria Mathisen, VVH, NO
Author "Zinc"
Marian Kjellevold, IMR, NO
Author" Fluoride"
Marit B. Veierød, UoO, NO
Statistical consultant
Marita Friberg, PHA, SE
Pre-project participant
Marjaana Lahti-Kosku, UoH, FI
Referee "Ultraprocessed foods"
Marko Lukic, UiT, NO
Author "Beverages"
Matti Uusitupa, UoEF, FO
Referee "Fat and fatty acids", "Dietary patters"
Max Troell, SRC, SE
Resource group "Moving food production and consumption toward sustainable diets in the Nordics: Challenges and opportunities"
Merja Saarinen, LUKE, FI
Author "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region", "Moving food production and consumption toward sustainable diets in the Nordics: Challenges and opportunities"
Mette Svendsen, UoO, NO
Author "Meal patterns"
Referee "Energy", "Nuts"
Michael Hauchild, DTU, DK
Author "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Mija Ceruka, Martat, FI
Workshop participant "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Mikael Fogelholm, UoH, FI
Author "Fluid and water balance"
Referee "Vitamin C", "Magnesium", reference group member "Assessing the environmental sustainability of diets – an overview of approaches and identification of 5 key considerations for comprehensive assessments"
Minna Kaljonen, Syke, FI
Reference group member "Assessing the environmental sustainability of diets – an overview of approaches and identification of 5 key considerations for comprehensive assessments"
Monica Hauger Carlsen, UoO, NO
Referee "Manganese", "Fluoride"
Morten Graversgaard, AU, DK
Author and workshop participant "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Morten Grønbæk, NIPH, DK
Author "Alcohol"
Nanna Louise Riis, FH, DK
Author "Potassium"
Narcisa Hannerz, KI, SE
Research librarian
Niina Kaartinen, FIFHW, FI
Referee "Carbohydrates", "Pulses"
Nina Øverby, UoA, NO
Author "Carbohydrates", "Beverages", "Milk and diary", "Sweets and confectionaries"
Referee "Ultraprocessed foods", "Dietary fibre"
Noora Kanerva, UoH, FI
Referee "Meal patterns"
Ola Hedstein, RF, NO
Resource group "Moving food production and consumption toward sustainable diets in the Nordics: Challenges and opportunities"
Olafur Ögmundarson, UoI, IS
Author and workshop participant "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Olof Gudny Geirsdottir, SHS, IS
Author "Protein"
Per Magne Ueland, UoB, NO
Author "Vitamin B6, "Folate",
Per Ole Iversen, UoO, NO
Author "Fluid and water balance"
Referee "sodium", "potassium"
Peter Fantke, DTU, DK
Author "Moving food production and consumption toward sustainable diets in the Nordics: Challenges and opportunities"
Peter Jackson, UoS, UK
Author "Social and economic dimensions of food sustainability – summary of the SAPEA report"
Piia Jallinoja, TU, FI
Reference group member "Assessing the environmental sustainability of diets – an overview of approaches and identification of 5 key considerations for comprehensive assessments"
Richard King, CH, UK
Workshop participant "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Riitta Freese, UoH, FI
Author "Niacin", "Pantothenic acid"
Referee "Riboflavin", "Vitamin B6"
Rikke Andersen, DTU, DK
NNR2023 Committee member
Rima Obeid, SUH, DE
Author "Choline"
Robert G. Hahn, KI, SE
Referee "Fluid and water balance"
Rune Blomhoff, UoO, NO
Project leader NNR project and pre-project
Sabina Gillsund, KI, SE
Research librarian
Sara L Booth, Tufts, US
Referee "Vitamin E"
Sari Niinistö, FIHW, FI
Author "Fats and oils"
Satu Männistö, NIHW, FI
NNR2023 Steering group member
Sigmund Anderssen, NIH, NO
Author "Physical activity: associations with health and summary of guidelines", pre-project participant
Sigrun Henjum, OsloMet, NO
Referee "Iodine"
Sine Høljund Christensen, UoC, DK
Author systematic reviews in the NNR-EFSA collaborating project
Sipra Sarlio, MSAH, FI
Reference group member "Assessing the environmental sustainability of diets – an overview of approaches and identification of 5 key considerations for comprehensive assessments"
Sirli Pehme, SIVITTA, EE
Workshop participant "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Sirpa Kurppa, NRIF, FI
Pre-project participant
Sofia Enhörning, SE
Referee "Fluid and water balance"
Stefan Einarsson, UAR, IS
Reference group member "Assessing the environmental sustainability of diets – an overview of approaches and identification of 5 key considerations for comprehensive assessments"
Stina Ramne, LU, SE
Referee "Sweets and confectionaries"
Stine Ulven, UoO, NO
Autho "Fish and seafood"
Susan Fairweather-Tait, NMS, UK
Referee NNR2023 report and methodology background papers
Susanna C. Larsson, KI, SE
Author "Eggs"
Susanne Bügel, UoC, DK
Author "Chromium"
Suvi T. Itkonen, UoH, FI
Author "Phosphorus"
Suvi Virtanen, FIHW, FI
Referee "Vegetables, fruits and berries", "Potatoes", "Fruit juice", "Nuts", "Milk and dairy"
Saari Hantunen, UEF, FI
Referee "Choline"
Tagli Pitsi, NIHD, EE
NNR2023 Observer
Therese Karlsson, GU, SE
Author "Choline"
Thomas Lind, UU, SE
Referee "Vitamin A"
Thomas Olsen, UoO, NO
Author "Vitamin A"
Þórhallur Ingi Þórhallsson
NNR2023 Committee member
Tim Benton, CH, UK
Author "Assessing the environmental sustainability of diets – an overview of approaches and identification of 5 key considerations for comprehensive assessments", "Overview of food consumption and environmental sustainability – considerations in the Nordic and Baltic region"
Tonje Aarsland, UoB, NO
Author "Pantothenic acid"
Tor A Strand, UoB, NO
Author "Thiamin", "Biotin", "Zinc"
Trine Husøy, NIPH, NO
Referee "Beverages"
Trine Wilkens, UoC, DK
Author systematic reviews in the NNR-EFSA collaborating project
Trond Arild Ydersbond, SSB, NO
Author "Moving food production and consumption toward sustainable diets in the Nordics: Challenges and opportunities"
Ulf H. Lerner, UoG, SE
Author "Vitamin A"
Ulike Spielau, UoB, NO
Author 2 de novo systematic review
Ulla Toft, FH, DK
Author "Potassium"
Ulla-Kaisa Kovisto Hursti, SFA, SE
NNR2023 Steering group member
Ulrika Ericson, LU, SE
Referee "Dietary patterns"
Ursula Schwab, UEF, FI
NNR2023 Committee member
Vegard Lysne, UoB, NO
Author "Riboflavin", "Niacin", "Vitamin B12"
Veronica Öhrvik, Axfoundation, SE
Referee "Sodium"
Vibeke Telle-Hansen, OsloMet, NO
Referee "Eggs", "Fats and oils"
Wulf Becker, UU, SE
Referee NNR2023 report and methodology background papers
Ylva Trolle Lagerros, KI, SE
Author "Vitamin E"
 
Åge Klepp, RF, NO
Resource group "Moving food production and consumption toward sustainable diets in the Nordics: Challenges and opportunities"
Åsa Svenfeldt, KTH, SE
Reference group member "Assessing the environmental sustainability of diets – an overview of approaches and identification of 5 key considerations for comprehensive assessments"

Appendix 2. List of qualified systematic reviews

1. Qualified systematic reviews: summary of exposures, outcomes, and methodology

Topic
Year
Authors/
organization (country)
Exposure(s)
Outcome(s)
Risk of bias assessment tool
SoE/evidence quality grading
Sodium and Potassium intake
2018
AHRQ (USA) Newberry et al. (2018)
Dietary sodium (sodium reduction), potassium
Blood pressure, risk for cardiovascular diseases, all-cause mortality, renal disease and related risk factors, adverse events
Cochrane RoB / NOS. Some nutrition-specific items added (e.g., sodium intake assessment)
"High", "Moderate", "Low" or "Insufficient". Based on: 1) Study limitations, 2) consistency, 3) directness, 4) precision, 5) reporting bias. Observational studies may be upgraded if very strong effects, a strong dose-response-relationship or if effects cannot be explained by uncontrolled confounding.
Vitamin D and Calcium
2014
AHRQ (USA) (Newberry et al., 2014)
Vitamin D and/or Calcium
Bone health, cardiovascular health, cancer, immune function, pregnancy, all-cause mortality, vitamin D status
CONSORT statement for RCTs, own checklist based on STROBE and nutrition-specific items
Grade A-B
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
2016
AHRQ (USA) Balk et al. (2016)
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Cardiovascular Disease, risk factors
Cochrane RoB / NOS. Some nutrition-specific items added.
"High", "Moderate", "Low" or "Insufficient". Based on: 1) Study limitations, 2) consistency, 3) directness, 4) precision, 5) reporting bias, 6) number of studies
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
2016
AHRQ (USA) Newberry et al. (2016)
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Maternal and Child Health: Gestational length, risk for preterm birth, birth weight, risk for low birth weight, risk for peripartum depression, risk for gestational hypertension / preeclampsia; postnatal growth, visual acuity, neurological development, cognitive development, autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, learning disorders, atopic dermatitis, allergies and respiratory disorders, adverse events
Cochrane RoB / NOS. Some nutrition-specific items added.
"High", "Moderate", "Low" or "Insufficient". Based on: 1) Study limitations, 2) consistency, 3) directness, 4) precision, 5) reporting bias, 6) number of studies
Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplementation
2021
AHRQ (USA) O’Connor et al. (2022)
Multivitamin and single nutrient supplements
Risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and mortality, other harms
Similar to Cochrane RoB
"High", "Moderate", "Low" or "Insufficient". Based on: 1) Study limitations, 2) consistency, 3) precision, 4) reporting bias
Nutrient Reference Values for Sodium
2017
Australian Government Department of Health/New Zealand Ministry of Health (Neale and Clark (2017)
Dietary sodium / sodium reduction
Blood pressure, cholesterol concentrations, stroke, myocardial infarction, all-cause mortality
Cochrane RoB, modified
GRADE and NHMRC level of evidence (from I to IV)
Alcohol
2023
Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction (Health Canada) (2023)
Alcohol
Physical and mental health, and social impact
AMSTAR 2.0
GRADE
Dietary Patterns
2020
DGAC (USA) (Boushey et al., 2020b)
Dietary patterns; macronutrient distribution
Growth, Size, Body Composition, and/or Risk of Overweight or Obesity
Cochrane RoB 2.0 / Rob-Nobs*
 
Strength of Evidence: "Strong", "Moderate", "Limited" or "Not Assignable"; based on 1) risk of bias, 2) consistency, 3) directness, 4) precision, 5) generalizability
Dietary Patterns (update of 2015 DGAC review)
2020
DGAC (USA) (2020 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2020)
Dietary patterns
Cardiovascular disease, CVD risk factors (blood pressure, blood lipids)
Dietary Patterns and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes (update of 2015 DGAC review)
2020
DGAC (USA) (Boushey et al., 2020d)
Dietary patterns
Type 2 Diabetes
Dietary Patterns (update of 2015 DGAC review)
2020
DGAC (USA) (Boushey et al., 2020e)
Dietary patterns
Breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer
Dietary Patterns (update of 2015 DGAC review)
2020
DGAC (USA) (Boushey et al., 2020f)
Dietary patterns
Bone health, e.g., risk of hip fracture, bone mineral density
Dietary Patterns (update of 2015 DGAC review)
2020
DGAC (USA) Boushey et al. (2020g)
Dietary patterns
Neurocognitive health; age-related cognitive impairment, dementia
Dietary Patterns
2020
DGAC (USA) (Boushey et al., 2020c)
Dietary patterns
Sarcopenia
Dietary Patterns
2020
DGAC (USA) (Boushey et al., 2020a)
Dietary patterns
Mortality
Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy
2020
DGAC (USA) (Donovan et al., 2020d)
Dietary patterns
Gestational weight gain
Dietary Patterns during Lactation
2020
DGAC (USA) (Donovan et al., 2020c)
Dietary patterns
Human milk composition and quantity
Folic Acid from Fortified Foods and/or Supplements during Pregnancy and Lactation
2020
DGAC (USA) (Donovan et al., 2020e)
Folic acid
Micronutrient status; gestational diabetes; hypertensive disorders during pregnancy; human milk composition; developmental milestones in child
Omega-3 fatty acids from Supplements Consumed before and during Pregnancy and Lactation
2020
DGAC (USA) (Donovan et al., 2020a)
Omega-3 from supplements
Risk of Child Food Allergies and Atopic Allergic Disease
Maternal Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation
2020
DGAC (USA) (Donovan et al., 2020b)
Dietary patterns, food allergen (e.g. Cow milk, eggs, fish, soybean, wheat, nuts etc.)
Risk of Child Food Allergies and Atopic Allergic Diseases (e.g. Atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma)
 
 
Exclusive Human Milk and/ or Infant Formula Consumption
2020
DGAC (USA) (Dewey et al., 2020a)
Human milk and/or infant formula
Overweight and Obesity
Exclusive Human Milk and/or Infant Formula Consumption
2020
DGAC (USA) (Dewey et al., 2020b)
Human milk and/or infant formula
Nutrient Status (e.g. Iron, zinc, iodine, vitamin B12 status)
Iron from Supplements Consumed During Infancy and Toddlerhood
2020
DGAC (USA) (Dewey et al., 2020d)
Iron from supplements
Growth, Size, and Body Composition
Vitamin D from Supplements Consumed during Infancy and Toddlerhood
2020
DGAC (USA) (Dewey et al., 2020c)
Vitamin D from supplements / fortified foods
Bone Health (e.g biomarkers, bone mass rickets, fracture) up to age 18 years
Beverage Consumption
2020
DGAC (USA) (Mayer-Davis et al., 2020b)
Beverages (milk, juice, sugar-sweetened beverages, low and no-calorie beverages vs. water)
Growth, Size, Body Composition, and Risk of Overweight and Obesity
Beverage Consumption During Pregnancy
2020
DGAC (USA) (Mayer-Davis et al., 2020a)
Beverages (Milk, Tea, Coffee, Sugar-Sweetened/Low- or no-calorie sweetened beverages, water)
Birth weight
Alcohol Consumption
2020
DGAC (USA) (Mayer-Davis et al., 2020c)
Alcoholic beverages (type and drinking pattern)
Mortality
Added Sugars (update of 2015 DGAC review)
2020
DGAC (USA) (Mayer-Davis et al., 2020d)
Added sugars; sugar-sweetened beverages
Cardiovascular Disease, CVD mortality, CVD risk factors
Types of Dietary Fat
2020
DGAC (USA) (Snetselaar et al., 2020a)
Types of fatty acids, individual fatty acids (e.g., ALA, DHA), dietary cholesterol or food sources of types of fat (e.g. Olive oil for MUFA, butter for SFA)
Cardiovascular Disease outcomes, intermediate outcomes (blood lipids and blood pressure)
Seafood consumption during pregnancy and lactation
2020
DGAC (USA) (Snetselaar et al., 2020d)
Maternal seafood / fish intake (e.g., fish,  salmon, tuna, trout, tilapia; shellfish: shrimp, crab, oysters)
Neurocognitive development (e.g., cognitive and language development; behavioral development; attention deficit disorder, autism spectrum disorder) In the child
Seafood consumption during childhood and adolescence (up to 18 years of age)
2020
DGAC (USA) (Snetselaar et al., 2020c)
Seafood (e.g., fish, salmon, tuna, trout, tilapia; shellfish: shrimp, crab, oysters)
Neurocognitive development (e.g., Cognition, depression, dementia, psychomotor performance, behaviour disorders, autism spectrum disorder, mental health ... Academic achievement)
Seafood consumption during childhood and adolescence (up to 18 years of age)
2020
DGAC (USA) (Snetselaar et al., 2020b)
Seafood (e.g., salmon, tuna, trout, tilapia; shellfish: shrimp, crab, oysters)
Cardiovascular Disease (and blood lipids or blood pressure)
Frequency of eating
2020
DGAC (USA) (Heymsfield et al., 2020a)
Eating frequency
Overweight and Obesity
Frequency of eating
2020
DGAC (USA) (Heymsfield et al., 2020c)
Eating frequency
Cardiovascular Disease
Frequency of eating
2020
DGAC (USA) (Heymsfield et al., 2020b)
Eating frequency
Type 2 Diabetes
Dietary patterns
2015
DGAC (USA) (Boushey et al., 2020e)
Dietary patterns
Cancer
NEL Bias assessment tool
"Strong", "Moderate", "Limited", "Expert opinion only", "Not assignable"; based on 1) risk of bias, 2) consistency, 3) quantity, 4) impact, 5) generalizability
 
Dietary patterns
2015
DGAC (USA) (Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2015)
Dietary patterns
Congenital anomalies
Dietary patterns
2015
DGAC (USA)(Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2015)
Dietary patterns
Neurological and psychological illness
Dietary patterns
2015
DGAC (USA) (Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2015)
Dietary patterns
Bone health
Dietary patterns and long-term food sustainability and related food security
2015
DGAC (USA)(Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2015)
Dietary patterns
Environmental impact
Sodium intake in children
2015
DGAC (USA)(Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2015)
Dietary sodium
Blood pressure
Sodium intake
2015
DGAC (USA)(Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2015)
Dietary sodium
Cardiovascular disease
Added sugars
2015
DGAC (USA)(Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2015)
Added sugars & sugar-sweetened beverages
CVD, CVD mortality, hypertension, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides
Carbohydrates
2012
DGE (Germany) (Hauner et al., 2012)
Total carbohydrates, sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages, dietary fibre, whole-grain, glycaemic index / load
Obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, coronary heart disease, cancer
WHO level of evidence (Ia-Ic, IIa-IIb) based on study design
WHO/WCRF (convincing, probable, possible, insufficient)
Fatty acids
2015
DGE (Germany) (Wolfram et al., 2015)
Dietary fats
Adiposity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia/ hyperlipidaemia, blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, cancer
Dietary Reference Values for Sodium
2019
EFSA (EFSA, 2019b)
Sodium intake, as 24 hr sodium excretion (i.e., not self-reported)
Blood pressure, CVD, bone mineral density, osteoporotic fractures, sodium balance
OHAT/NTP Risk of bias tool (based on AHRQ, Cochrane, CLARITY etc.): selection, performance, attrition, detection and selective reporting bias
"Uncertainty analysis" based on consistency, precision, internal and external validity, etc.
Dietary References Values for Copper
2012
EFSA, review by ANSES (France) (Bost et al., 2012)
Copper
Copper status, bioavailability, cardiac arrythmia, cancer, arthritis, cognitive function, respiratory disease, cardiovascular mortality
EURRECA system (high, moderate, low or unclear), partly based on Cochrane
 
 
Consistency, strength, and quality of the studies (see Dhonukshe-Rutten et al. (2013) & EFSA, 2010 (principles) (EFSA, 2010))
 
 
 
Dietary Reference Values for Riboflavin
2014
EFSA, review by Pallas Health Research (Netherlands) (Buijssen et al., 2014)
Riboflavin
Riboflavin status, biomarkers; cancer; mortality; bone health, infant health etc
Dietary Reference Values for Phosphorus, Sodium and Chloride
2013
EFSA, review by Pallas Health Research (Netherlands) (Eeuwijk et al., 2013)
Phosphorus, sodium, chloride
Status, adequacy, health outcomes including cancer, CVD, kidney disease, all-cause and CVD mortality
Dietary Reference Values for Niacin, Biotin and Vitamin B6
2012
EFSA, review by Pallas Health Research (Netherlands) (Eeuwijk et al., 2012)
Niacin
Niacin / biotin / vitamin B6 status, adequacy, bioavailability, cancer, CVD, cognitive decline, infant health, all-cause mortality etc.
Tolerable upper intake level for dietary sugars
2022
EFSA (2022)
Sugars (total / added / free), fructose, sources of sugars
Chronic metabolic diseases, pregnancy‐related endpoints, and dental caries
OHAT/NTP risk of bias (RoB) tool
"Uncertainty analysis" based on consistency, precision, internal and external validity, etc.
Tolerable upper intake level for vitamin B6
2023
EFSA (2023a)
Vitamin B6
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Peripheral neuropathy, developmental toxicity
OHAT/NTP risk of bias (RoB) tool
"Uncertainty analysis" based on consistency, precision, internal and external validity, etc.
Tolerable upper intake level for selenium
2023
EFSA (2023b)
Selenium
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Clinical effects, potential biomarkers of effect, risk of chronic diseases and impaired neuropsychological development in humans
OHAT/NTP risk of bias (RoB) tool
"Uncertainty analysis" based on consistency, precision, internal and external validity, etc.
Tolerable upper intake level for folate
2023
Åkesson et al. (2023)
Folate / folic acid
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Dose-response relationship with folate status. Neuropathy, cognitive function and dementia, cancer, other adverse effects
OHAT/NTP risk of bias (RoB) tool
"Uncertainty analysis" based on consistency, precision, internal and external validity, etc.
Tolerable upper intake level for manganese
In press
Halldorsson et al. (in press)
Manganese
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Neurologic effects, other adverse effects.
OHAT/NTP risk of bias (RoB) tool
"Uncertainty analysis" based on consistency, precision, internal and external validity, etc.
Tolerable upper intake level for vitamin A
In press
Olsen et al. (in press)
Vitamin A
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Teratogenicity. Hepatoxicity. Bone fractures / bone mineral density, other adverse effects.
OHAT/NTP risk of bias (RoB) tool
"Uncertainty analysis" based on consistency, precision, internal and external validity, etc.
Vegetable intake
2022
GBD (Stanaway et al., 2022)
Vegetables (including fresh, frozen, cooked, canned or dried), excluding starchy vegetables such as potatoes and corn
Mortality or incidence of: ischemic heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes and esophageal cancer
Own quality score (score 0, best to 5, worst) based on exposure assessment, outcome assessment and confounding
“Burden of Proof Risk Function” (BPRF) star rating (from 1 to 5): 1 = non-significant association, 2 =weak evidence, 3 = moderate evidence, 4 = strong evidence, 5 = very strong evidence
Red meat
2022
GBD (Lescinsky et al., 2022)
Unprocessed red meat (including beef, lamb and pork)
Mortality or incidence of: hemorrhagic stroke, type 2 diabetes, colorectal cancer, IHD and ischemic stroke; incidence of breast cancer
Own quality score (score 0, best to 5, worst) based on exposure assessment, outcome assessment and confounding
“Burden of Proof Risk Function” (BPRF) star rating (from 1 to 5): 1 = non-significant association, 2 =weak evidence, 3 = moderate evidence, 4 = strong evidence, 5 = very strong evidence
Protein intake
2022
Netherlands Health Council (Hengeveld et al., 2022)
Protein
Lean body mass, muscle strength, physical performance, bone health, blood pressure, serum glucose and insulin, serum lipids, kidney function, cognition
Cochrane RoB 2.0
“Convincing beneficial”, “likely beneficial”, “possible beneficial”, “ambiguous”, “likely no effect”, “too few studies”
Milk and dairy consumption during pregnancy
2012
NNR2012: Brantsæter et al. (2012)
Milk and dairy products
Birth weight, fetal growth, large for gestational age, small for gestational age
NNR quality assessment tool (rated A, B or C)
WCRF (convincing, probable, limited - suggestive, limited - no conclusion)
Dietary iron
2013
NNR2012: Domellof et al. (2013)
Iron intake at different life stages
Requirements for adequate growth, development and maintenance of health (anaemia, cognitive / behavioural function, cancer, cardiovascular disease)
Dietary macronutrients
2012
NNR2012 (Fogelholm et al., 2012)
Dietary macronutrient consumption
Primary prevention of long-term weight/WC/body fat changes, or changes after weight loss
Weight loss before conception
2012
NNR2012 (Forsum et al., 2013)
Weight loss before conception in women with overweight or obesity
Birth outcomes, childhood obesity / BMI obstetric risk, preeclampsia, postpartum weight retention, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension, postpartum depression, lactation, infant growth
Iodine
2012
NNR2012 (Gunnarsdottir & Dahl, 2012)
Iodine status
Requirements for adequate growth, development and maintenance of health (pregnancy, childhood development, thyroid function, metabolism
WCRF
Breastfeeding, introduction of other foods and effects on health
2013
NNR2012: Hörnell et al. (2013b)
Breastfeeding and introduction of other foods
Growth in infancy, overweight and obesity, atopic disease, asthma, allergy, health and disease outcomes including infectious disease, cognitive and neurological development, CVD, cancer, diabetes, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, insulin resistance)
Protein intake from 0 to 18 years of age
2013
NNR2012: Hörnell et al. (2013a)
Protein intake in infancy and childhood
Functional/clinical outcomes, risk factors (including serum lipids, glucose and insulin, blood pressure, body weight, bone health)
 
 
Vitamin D
2013
NNR2012: Lamberg-Allardt et al. (2013)
Vitamin D
Dietary reference values, vitamin D status, requirements for adequate growth, development and maintenance of health, upper limits, pregnancy outcomes, bone health, cancer, diabetes, obesity, all-cause mortality, CVD, infections
Protein intake in elderly populations
2014
NNR2012 (Pedersen & Cederholm, 2014)
Protein intake in elderly populations
Dietary requirements (nitrogen balance), muscle mass, bone health, physical training, potential risks
Protein intake in adults
2013
NNR2012: (Pedersen et al., 2013)
Protein intake, protein sources
Dietary requirements, markers of functional or clinical outcomes (including serum lipids, glucose and insulin, blood pressure), pregnancy or birth outcomes, CVD, body weight, cancer, diabetes, fractures, renal function, physical training, muscular strength, mortality
Dietary fat
2014
NNR2012: Schwab et al. (2014)
Types of dietary fat
Body weight, diabetes, CVD, cancer, all-cause mortality, risk factors (including serum lipids, glucose and insulin, blood pressure, inflammation)
Sugar consumption
2012
NNR2012 (Sonestedt et al., 2012)
Sugar intake; sugar-sweetened beverages
Type 2 Diabetes, CVD, metabolic risk factors (including glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidaemia, blood pressure, uric acid, inflammation), all-cause mortality
Calcium
2013
NNR2012 (Uusi-Rasi et al., 2013)
Calcium
Calcium requirements, upper intake level, adequate growth, development and maintenance of health; bone health, muscle strength, cancer, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, obesity / weight control, all-cause mortality, CVD
Health effects associated with foods characteristic of the Nordic diet
2013
NNR2012 (Åkesson et al., 2013)
Potatoes, berries, whole grains, dairy products, red meat / processed meat
CVD incidence and mortality, Type 2 diabetes, inflammatory factors, colorectal, prostate and breast cancer, bone health, iron status
NNR quality assessment tool
WCRF
Carbohydrates
2015
SACN (UK) (2015)
Total carbohydrates, sugars, sugar-sweetened food / beverages, starch, starchy foods, dietary fibre, glycemic index/load
Obesity, cardio-metabolic health, energy intake, colorectal health (cancer, IBS, constipation), oral health
Cochrane RoB; observational studies: no formal grading, but markers of study quality = cohort size, attrition, follow-up time, sampling method and response rate, participant characteristics, dietary intake assessment
"Adequate", "moderate", "limited" (own grading system based on study quality, study size, methodological considerations, and specific criteria to upgrade, e.g., dose-response relationship)
Fish
2022
VKM (Norway), Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (2022)
Fish/fish products, nutrients and contaminants in fish
CVD-outcomes, mortality, neurodevelopmental outcomes, birth outcomes, type 2 diabetes, bone health, dental enamel changes, overweight and obesity, immunological diseases, male fertility
NNR quality assessment tool (rated A, B or C), AMSTAR version 1
WCRF
Alcohol
2018
WCRF/AICR (2018b)
Alcoholic drinks (beer, wine, spirits, fermented milk, mead, cider)
Cancer (including of mouth, pharynx and larynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectal, breast, kidney, stomach, lung, pancreas, skin)
Cochrane RoB / NOS
WCRF
Body fatness & weight gain
2018
WCRF/AICR (2018a)
Body fatness: BMI, waist circumference, W-H ratio; adult weight gain
Cancer (including of mouth, pharynx and larynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectal, breast, kidney, stomach, lung, pancreas, gallbladder, ovary, prostate etc.)
Energy balance
2018
WCRF/AICR (2018d)
Dietary patterns, foods, macronutrients, energy density, lactation, physical activity
Weight gain, overweight and obesity
From NICE (2014) report (low, moderate, high quality)
Height and birthweight
2018
(WCRF/AICR, 2018c)
Attained height, growth, birthweight
Cancer (including of mouth, pharynx and larynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectal, breast, kidney, stomach, lung, pancreas, gallbladder, ovary, prostate etc.)
Cochrane RoB / NOS
Lactation
2018
WCRF/AICR (2018f)
Lactation
Cancer (including of breast, ovary, etc.) in the mother who is breastfeeding
Meat, fish, dairy
2018
WCRF/AICR (2018g)
Meat, fish and dairy products, haem iron, diets high in calcium
Cancer (including of mouth, pharynx and larynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectal, breast, kidney, stomach, lung, pancreas, gallbladder, ovary, prostate etc.)
Non-alcoholic drinks
2018
WCRF/AICR (2018h)
Non-alcoholic drinks: water / arsenic in drinking water, coffee, tea, mate
Cancer (including of mouth, pharynx and larynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectal, breast, kidney, stomach, lung, pancreas, gallbladder, ovary, prostate etc.)
Other
2018
WCRF/AICR (2018i)
Dietary patterns, macronutrients, micronutrients in foods or supplements, glycemic load
Cancer (including of mouth, pharynx and larynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectal, breast, kidney, stomach, lung, pancreas, gallbladder, ovary, prostate etc.)
Physical activity
2018
(WCRF/AICR, 2018b)
Physical activity, types of physical activity, intensity.
Cancer (including of mouth, pharynx and larynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectal, breast, kidney, stomach, lung, pancreas, gallbladder, ovary, prostate etc.)
Preservation and processing
2018
WCRF/AICR (2018a)
Salting, curing, fermentation, smoking; processed meat and fish
Cancer (including of mouth, pharynx and larynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectal, breast, kidney, stomach, lung, pancreas, gallbladder, ovary, prostate etc.)
Whole grains, fruit, vegetables
2018
WCRF/AICR (2018e)
Whole grains, pulses (legumes), vegetables, fruits, dietary fibre, aflatoxins, beta-carotene, carotenoids, vitamin C, isoflavones
Cancer (including of mouth, pharynx and larynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectal, breast, kidney, stomach, lung, pancreas, gallbladder, ovary, prostate etc.)
Sugars
2015
WHO (2015)
Total, added or free sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juice
Body weight, body fatness, dental caries
Cochrane RoB / cohort studies: own
Sodium
2012
WHO (2012)
Sodium intake/reduced sodium intake, sodium excretion
Cardiovascular diseases, all-cause mortality, blood pressure, renal function, blood lipids, potential adverse effects
Cochrane RoB
Potassium
2012
WHO (Aburto et al., 2013)
Potassium intake, 24 h urinary potassium excretion
Blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, all-cause mortality, cholesterol, noradrenaline, creatinine, side effects
Cochrane RoB
Trans-fats
2016
WHO (de Souza et al., 2015); Brouwer (2016); Reynolds et al. (2022)
Trans fatty acids
All-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes; blood lipids
Cochrane RoB (for TFA and blood lipids) / NOS
Saturated fats
2016
WHO (Hooper et al., 2015; Hooper et al., 2020; Mensink, 2016; Reynolds et al., 2022)
Saturated fat reduction
Cardiovascular disease, mortality, blood lipids, other risk factors, growth (children)
Cochrane RoB, other potential sources of bias, e.g. compliance
Carbohydrate quality
2019
WHO (Reynolds et al., 2019)
Markers of carbohydrate quality, i.e. dietary fibre, glycaemic index/ load, whole grains
All-cause mortality, coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, colorectal cancer, adiposity-related cancers, adiposity, fasting glucose/insulin/insulin sensitivity/HbA1c, blood lipids, blood pressure
Cochrane RoB / NOS / ROBIS
Omega-3, Omega- 6 and polyunsaturated fat
2020
WHO (Brainard et al., 2020)
Higher vs lower omega-3, omega-6, or polyunsaturated fats
New neurocognitive illness, newly impaired cognition, and/or continuous measures of cognition
Cochrane RoB
Non-sugar sweeteners
2022
WHO (Rios-Leyvraz & Montez, 2022)
Non-sugar sweeteners
Adiposity, type 2 diabetes, all-cause mortality, CVD, cancer, energy intake, sugars intake, pregnancy
Cochrane RoB / NOS / ROBINS-I

2. Qualified SRs by nutrient and food groups

Table 1. Macronutrients
Nutrient
Reference
Title
Published/ commissioned by
Fluid and water balance
 
 
Energy
WCRF/AICR (2018a)
 
 
Body fatness and weight gain and the risk of cancer
WCRF/AICR
WCRF/AICR (2018d)
Diet, nutrition and physical activity: Energy balance and body fatness
WCRF/AICR
Fat and fatty acids
Fogelholm et al. (2012)
Dietary macronutrients and food consumption as determinants of long-term weight change in adult populations: a systematic literature review.
NNR2012
Schwab et al. (2014)
Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer: a systematic review
NNR2012
Wolfram et al. (2015)
Evidence-Based Guideline of the German Nutrition Society: Fat Intake and Prevention of Selected Nutrition-Related Diseases
DGE
de Souza et al. (2015)
Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
WHO
Brouwer (2016)
Effects of trans-fatty acid intake on blood lipids and lipoproteins: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis
WHO
Mensink (2016)
Effects of saturated fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins: a systematic review and regression analysis
WHO
Balk et al. (2016)
Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: An Updated Systematic Review
AHRQ
Newberry et al. (2016)
Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Maternal and Child Health: An Updated Systematic Review
AHRQ
Te Morenga and Montez (2017)
Health effects of saturated and trans-fatty acid intake in children and adolescents: Systematic review and meta-analysis
WHO
Hooper et al. (2020)
Reduction in saturated fat intake for cardiovascular disease
WHO
Brainard et al. (2020)
Omega-3, Omega-6, and Polyunsaturated Fat for Cognition: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials
WHO
Snetselaar et al. (2020a)
Types of Dietary Fat and Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
Donovan et al. (2020a)
Omega-3 fatty acids from Supplements Consumed before and during Pregnancy and Lactation and Developmental Milestones, Including Neurocognitive Development, in the Child: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
Bärebring et al. (2022)
Supplementation with long chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy, lactation, or infancy in relation to risk of asthma and atopic disease during childhood: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials
NNR2023
Nwaru et al. (2022)
Quality of dietary fat and risk of Alzheimer's disease and dementia in adults aged >/=50 years: a systematic review
NNR2023
Reynolds et al. (2022)
Saturated fat and trans-fat intakes and their replacement with other macronutrients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies
WHO
Carbo­hydrates
Hauner et al. (2012)
Evidence-based guideline of the German Nutrition Society: carbohydrate intake and prevention of nutrition-related diseases
DGE
Sonestedt et al. (2012)
Does high sugar consumption exacerbate cardiometabolic risk factors and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease?
NNR2012
Fogelholm et al. (2012)
Dietary macronutrients and food consumption as determinants of long-term weight change in adult populations: a systematic literature review
NNR2012
WHO (2015)
Guideline: Sugars intake for adults and children
WHO
SACN (2015)
Carbohydrates and Health
SACN
Reynolds et al. (2019)
Carbohydrate quality and human health: a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses
WHO
Mayer-Davis et al. (2020e)
Added Sugars Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
Dietary fibre
Fogelholm et al. (2012)
Dietary macronutrients and food consumption as determinants of long-term weight change in adult populations: a systematic literature review
NNR2012
Hauner et al. (2012)
Evidence-based guideline of the German Nutrition Society: carbohydrate intake and prevention of nutrition-related diseases
DGE
SACN (2015)
Carbohydrates and Health
SACN
Reynolds et al. (2019)
Carbohydrate quality and human health: a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses
WHO
Dierkes et al. (2023)
Dietary fiber and growth, iron status and bowel function in children 0–5 years old: a systematic review
NNR2023
Protein
Fogelholm et al. (2012)
Dietary macronutrients and food consumption as determinants of long-term weight change in adult populations: a systematic literature review
NNR2012
Hörnell et al. (2013a)
Protein intake from 0 to 18 years of age and its relation to health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations
NNR2012
Pedersen et al. (2013)
Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: a systematic literature review
NNR2012
Pedersen & Cederholm (2014)
Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review
NNR2012
Hengeveld et al. (2022)
Health Effects of Increasing Protein Intake Above the Current Population Reference Intake in Older Adults: A Systematic Review of the Health Council of the Netherlands
Health Council of the Netherlands
Arnesen et al. (2022)
Protein intake in children and growth and risk of overweight or obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis
NNR2023
Lamberg-Allardt et al. (2023b)
Animal versus plant-based protein and risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies
NNR2023
Abbreviations: AHRQ: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; DGAC2020: 2020 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee; DGE: Deutsche Geschellschaft für Ernährung (German Nutrition Society); EFSA: European Food Safety Authority; NNR: Nordic Nutrition Recommendations; WCRF/AICR: World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research; WHO: World Health Organization.
Table 2. Micronutrients
Nutrient
Reference
Title
Published/ commissioned by
Vitamin A
Olsen et al. (in press)
Preparatory work for the update of the tolerable upper intake levels for vitamin A
EFSA
Vitamin D
Lamberg-Allardt et al. (2013)
Vitamin D - a systematic literature review for the 5th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations
NNR2012
Newberry et al. (2014)
Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes (Update)
AHRQ
Dewey et al. (2020c)
 
Vitamin D from Supplements Consumed during Infancy and Toddlerhood and Bone Health: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
Lamberg-Allardt et al. (2023a)
Preparatory work for the update of the tolerable upper intake levels for vitamin D
EFSA
Ribo­flavin
Buijssen et al. (2014)
Literature search and review related to specific preparatory work in the establishment of Dietary Reference Values for Riboflavin
EFSA
Niacin
Eeuwijk et al. (2012)
Literature search and review related to specific preparatory work in the establishment of Dietary Reference Values for Niacin, Biotin and Vitamin B6
EFSA
Vitamin B6
Eeuwijk et al. (2012)
Literature search and review related to specific preparatory work in the establishment of Dietary Reference Values for Niacin, Biotin and Vitamin B6
EFSA
EFSA (2023a)
Scientific opinion on the tolerable upper intake level for vitamin B6
EFSA
Folate
Donovan et al. (2020e)
Folic Acid from Fortified Foods and/or Supplements during Pregnancy and Lactation and Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review
DGAC 2020
Åkesson et al. (2023)
Preparatory work for the update of the tolerable upper intake levels for folic acid/folate
EFSA
Vitamin B12
Bärebring et al. (2023)
Intake of vitamin B12 in relation to vitamin B12 status in groups susceptible to deficiency: A systematic review
NNR2023
Biotin
Eeuwijk et al. (2012)
Literature search and review related to specific preparatory work in the establishment of Dietary Reference Values for Niacin, Biotin and Vitamin B6
EFSA
Calcium
Uusi-Rasi et al. (2013)
Calcium intake in health maintenance - a systematic review
NNR2012
Newberry et al. (2014)
Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes (Update)
AHRQ
Phos­phorus
Eeuwijk et al. (2013)
Literature search and review related to specific preparatory work in the establishment of Dietary Reference Values for Phosphorus, Sodium and Chloride
EFSA
Sodium
WHO (2012)
Guideline: Sodium intake for adults and children
WHO
Eeuwijk et al. (2013)
Literature search and review related to specific preparatory work in the establishment of Dietary Reference Values for Phosphorus, Sodium and Chloride
EFSA
Neale and Clark (2017)
 
Australian and New Zealand Nutrient Reference Values for Sodium Systematic Literature Review
Australian Department of Health and New Zealand Ministry of Health
Newberry et al. (2018)
 
Sodium and Potassium Intake: Effects on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks
AHRQ
EFSA (2019b)
 
Dietary reference values for sodium
EFSA
NASEM (2019)
Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium
NASEM
Potas­sium
Aburto et al. (2013)
Effect of increased potassium intake on cardiovascular risk factors and disease: systematic review and meta-analyses
WHO
Newberry et al. (2018)
Sodium and Potassium Intake: Effects on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks
AHRQ
NASEM (2019)
Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium
NASEM
Iron
Domellöf et al. (2013)
Health effects of different dietary iron intakes: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations
NNR2012
Dewey et al. (2020d)
Iron from Supplements Consumed During Infancy and Toddlerhood and Growth, Size, and Body Composition: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
Iodine
Gunnarsdottir and Dahl (2012)
Iodine intake in human nutrition: a systematic literature review
NNR 2012
Selenium
EFSA (2023b)
Scientific opinion on the tolerable upper intake level for selenium
EFSA
Copper
Bost et al. (2012)
Literature search and review related to specific preparatory work in the establishment of Dietary References Values for Copper
EFSA
Manganese
Halldorsson et al. (in press)
Preparatory work for the update of the tolerable upper intake levels for manganese
EFSA
Phyto­chemicals and anti­oxidants
WCRF/AICR (2018c)
Diet, nutrition, physical activity, and lung cancer
WCRF/AICR
O’Connor et al. (2022)
Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplementation for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer
AHRQ
Abbreviations: AHRQ: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; DGAC2020: 2020 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee; DGE: Deutsche Geschellschaft für Ernährung (German Nutrition Society); EFSA: European Food Safety Authority; GBD: Global Burden of Disease; NASEM: National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine; NNR: Nordic Nutrition Recommendations; WCRF/AICR: World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research; WHO: World Health Organization.
Table 3. Food groups and diet patterns
Food group
Qualified SR
Title
Published/ commissioned by
Breast­feeding
Victora et al. (2016)
Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect
WHO
WCRF/AICR (2018d)
Energy balance and body fatness
WCRF/AICR
Dewey et al. (2020b)
The Duration, Frequency, and Volume of Exclusive Human Milk and/or Infant Formula Consumption and Nutrient Status: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
Dewey et al. (2020a)
The Duration, Frequency, and Volume of Exclusive Human Milk and/or Infant Formula Consumption and Overweight and Obesity: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
Güngör et al. (2019b)
Infant milk-feeding practices and food allergies, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma throughout the life span: a systematic review
DGAC2020
Güngör et al. (2019e)
Infant milk-feeding practices and diagnosed celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease in offspring: a systematic review
DGAC2020
Güngör et al. (2019a)
Infant milk-feeding practices and childhood leukemia: a systematic review
DGAC2020
Güngör et al. (2019c)
Infant milk-feeding practices and cardiovascular disease outcomes in offspring: a systematic review
DGAC2020
Güngör et al. (2019d)
Infant milk-feeding practices and diabetes outcomes in offspring: a systematic review
DGAC2020
Comple­mentary feeding
Obbagy et al. (2019a)
Complementary feeding and micronutrient status: a systematic review
DGAC2020
Obbagy et al. (2019c)
Complementary feeding and bone health: a systematic review
DGAC2020
Obery et al. (2019b)
Complementary feeding and food allergy, atopic dermatitis/eczema, asthma, and allergic rhinitis: a systematic review
DGAC2020
EFSA (2019a)
Appropriate age range for introduction of complementary feeding into an infant's diet
EFSA
de Silva et al. (2020)
Preventing food allergy in infancy and childhood: Systematic review of randomised controlled trials.
EAACI
English et al. (2019b)
Timing of introduction of complementary foods and beverages and growth, size, and body composition: a systematic review
DGAC2020
English et al. (2019c)
Types and amounts of complementary foods and beverages consumed and growth, size, and body composition: a systematic review
DGAC2020
English et al. (2019a)
Complementary feeding and developmental milestones: a systematic review
DGAC2020
Spill et al. (2019)
Repeated exposure to food and food acceptability in infants and toddlers: a systematic review
DGAC 2020
Arnesen et al. (2022)
Protein intake in children and growth and risk of overweight or obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis
NNR2023
Padhani et al. (2023)
Optimal timing of introduction of complementary feeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
WHO
Beverages
Sonestedt et al. (2012)
Does high sugar consumption exacerbate cardiometabolic risk factors and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease?
NNR2012
WHO (2015)
Guideline: Sugars intake for adults and children
WHO
SACN (2015)
Carbohydrates and Health
SACN
WCRF/AICR (2018h)
Non-alcoholic drinks and the risk of cancer
WCRF/AICR
Mayer-Davis et al. (2020e)      
Added Sugars Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
Mayer-Davis et al. (2020b)
Beverage Consumption and Growth, Size, Body Composition, and Risk of Overweight and Obesity: A Systematic Review
 
EFSA (2022)
Tolerable upper intake level for dietary sugars
EFSA
Rios-Leyvraz & Montez (2022)
Health effects of the use of non-sugar sweeteners: a systematic review and meta-analysis
WHO
Rousham et al. (2022)
Unhealthy Food and Beverage Consumption in Children and Risk of Overweight and Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
WHO
Cereals (grains)
Reynolds et al. (2019)
Carbohydrate quality and human health: a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses
WHO
WCRF/AICR (2018e)
Wholegrains, vegetables and fruit and the risk of cancer
WCRF/AICR
Vegetables, fruits and berries
 
Fogelholm (2012)
Dietary macronutrients and food consumption as determinants of long-term weight change in adult populations: a systematic literature review
NNR2012
WCRF/AICR 2018 (2018e)
Wholegrains, vegetables and fruit and the risk of cancer
WCRF/AICR
Stanaway et al. (2022)
Health effects associated with vegetable consumption: a Burden of Proof study
GBD
Potatoes
Åkesson et al. (2013)
Health effects associated with foods characteristic of the Nordic diet: a systematic literature review
NNR2012
SACN (2015)
Carbohydrates and Health
SACN
Fruit juice
SACN (2015)
Carbohydrates and Health
SACN
WCRF/AICR (2018d)
Energy balance and body fatness
WCRF/AICR
Mayer-Davis et al. (2020b)
Beverage consumption
DGAC2020
Pulses (legumes)
SACN (2015)
Carbohydrates and Health
SACN
WCRF (2018e)
Wholegrains, vegetables and fruit and the risk of cancer
WCRF/AICR
Lamberg-Allardt et al. (2023b)
Animal versus plant-based protein and risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies
NNR2023
Thorísdottír et al. (2023)
Legume consumption in adults and risk of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis
NNR2023
Nuts and seeds
Arnesen et al.(2023)
Nuts and seeds consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and their risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis
NNR2023
Fish and seafod
WCRF/AICR (2018g)
Meat, fish, and dairy products and the risk of cancer
WCRF/AICR
Snetselaar et al. (2020d)
Seafood Consumption during Pregnancy and Lactation and Neurocognitive Development in the Child: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
Snetselaar et al. (2020c)
Seafood Consumption during Childhood and Adolescence and Neurocognitive Development: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (2022)
Benefit and risk assessment of fish in the Norwegian diet
Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment
Red meat
WCRF/AICR (2018g)
Meat, fish, and dairy products and the risk of cancer
WCRF/AICR
 
Lescinsky et al. (2022)
Health effects associated with consumption of unprocessed red meat: a Burden of Proof study
GBD
White meat
WCRF/AICR (2018g)
Meat, fish, and dairy products and the risk of cancer
WCRF/AICR
 
Ramel et al. (in press)
White meat consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
NNR2023
Milk and dairy products
Åkesson et al. (2013)
Health effects associated with foods characteristic of the Nordic diet: a systematic literature review
NNR2012
WCRF/AICR (2018g)
Meat, fish, and dairy products and the risk of cancer
WCRF/AICR
Lamberg-Allardt et al. (2023b)
Animal versus plant-based protein and risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies
NNR2023
Sweets
EFSA (2022)
Tolerable upper intake level for dietary sugars
EFSA
Mayer-Davis et al. (2020e)
Added Sugars Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
WHO (2015)
Guideline: Sugars intake for adults and children
WHO
Rousham et al.  (2022)
Unhealthy Food and Beverage Consumption in Children and Risk of Overweight and Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
WHO
Alcohol
WCRF/AICR, 2018 (2018b)
Alcoholic drinks and the risk of cancer
WCRF/AICR
 
Mayer-Davis et al. (2020c)
Alcohol Consumption and All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
 
Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction (2023)
Canada’s Guidance on Alcohol and Health: Final Report
Health Canada
 
2020 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (2020)
Dietary Patterns and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
Dietary patterns
Boushey et al. (2020d)
Dietary Patterns and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
Boushey et al. (2020b)
Dietary Patterns and Growth, Size, Body Composition, and/or Risk of Overweight or Obesity: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
Boushey et al. (2020a)
Dietary Patterns and All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review.
DGAC2020
Boushey et al. (2020c)
Dietary Patterns and Sarcopenia: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
Boushey et al. (2020e)
Dietary Patterns and Breast, Colorectal, Lung, and Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
Boushey et al. (2020f)
Dietary Patterns and Bone Health: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
Boushey et al. (2020g)
Dietary Patterns and Neurocognitive Health: A Systematic Review.
DGAC2020
Heymsfield et al. (2020c)
Frequency of Eating and Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
Meal patterns
Heymsfield et al. (2020a)
Frequency of Eating and Growth, Size, Body Composition, and Risk of Overweight and Obesity: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020
Heymsfield et al. (2020b)
Frequency of Eating and Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review
DGAC2020

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Arnesen, E. K., Thorisdottir, B., Bärebring, L., et al. (2023). Nuts and seeds consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and their risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Food Nutr Res, 67. https://doi.org/10.29219/fnr.v67.8961
Arnesen, E. K., Thorisdottir, B., Lamberg-Allardt, C., et al. (2022). Protein intake in children and growth and risk of overweight or obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Food Nutr Res, 66. https://doi.org/10.29219/fnr.v66.8242
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Bost, M., Houdart, S., Huneau, J. F., et al. (2012). Literature search and review related to specific preparatory work in the establishment of Dietary References Values for Copper. EFSA Supporting Publications, 9(6). https://doi.org/10.2903/sp.efsa.2012.EN-302
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Bärebring, L., Lamberg-Allardt, C., Thorisdottir, B., et al. (2023). Intake of vitamin B12 in relation to vitamin B12 status in groups susceptible to deficiency: A systematic review. Food Nutr Res, 67.
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de Souza, R. J., Mente, A., Maroleanu, A., et al. (2015). Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. BMJ, 351, h3978. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h3978
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Dewey, K., Bazzano, L., Davis, T., et al. (2020c). Vitamin D from Supplements Consumed during Infancy and Toddlerhood and Bone Health: A Systematic Review. Alexandria (VA): USDA Nutrition Evidence Systematic Review. https://doi.org/10.52570/NESR.DGAC2020.SR0304
Dewey, K., Bazzano, L., Davis, T., et al. (2020d). Iron from Supplements Consumed During Infancy and Toddlerhood and Growth, Size, and Body Composition: A Systematic Review. Alexandria (VA): USDA Nutrition Evidence Systematic Review. https://doi.org/10.52570/NESR.DGAC2020.SR0303
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Dierkes, J., Nwaru, B. I., Ramel, A., et al. (2023). Dietary fiber and growth, iron status and bowel function in children 0–5 years old: a systematic review. Food Nutr Res(67), 9011. https://doi.org/10.29219/fnr.v67.9011
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Domellöf, M., Thorsdottir, I., & Thorstensen, K. (2013). Health effects of different dietary iron intakes: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. Food Nutr Res, 57. https://doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v57i0.21667
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Eeuwijk, J., Oordt, A., & Vonk Noordegraaf‐Schouten, M. (2013). Literature search and review related to specific preparatory work in the establishment of Dietary Reference Values for Phosphorus, Sodium and Chloride. EFSA Supporting Publications, 10(10). https://doi.org/10.2903/sp.efsa.2013.EN-502
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EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods, and Food Allergens, Turck, D., et al. (2023a). Scientific opinion on the tolerable upper intake level for vitamin B6. EFSA J, 21(5), e08006. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2023.8006
EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA), Turck, D., Bohn, T., et al. (2022). Tolerable upper intake level for dietary sugars. EFSA J, 20(2), e07074. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2022.7074
EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens, Turck, D., Bohn, T., et al. (2023b). Scientific opinion on the tolerable upper intake level for selenium. EFSA J, 21(1), e07704. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2023.7704
EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens, Turck, D., Castenmiller, J., et al. (2019b). Dietary reference values for sodium. EFSA J, 17(9). https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5778
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English, L. K., Obbagy, J. E., Wong, Y. P., et al. (2019b). Timing of introduction of complementary foods and beverages and growth, size, and body composition: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr, 109(Suppl_7), 935S-955S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy267
English, L. K., Obbagy, J. E., Wong, Y. P., et al. (2019c). Types and amounts of complementary foods and beverages consumed and growth, size, and body composition: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr, 109(Suppl_7), 956S-977S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy281
Fogelholm, M., Anderssen, S., Gunnarsdottir, I., & Lahti-Koski, M. (2012). Dietary macronutrients and food consumption as determinants of long-term weight change in adult populations: a systematic literature review. Food Nutr Res, 56. https://doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v56i0.19103
Forsum, E., Brantsaeter, A. L., Olafsdottir, A. S., et al. (2013). Weight loss before conception: A systematic literature review. Food Nutr Res, 57. https://doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v57i0.20522
Gunnarsdottir, I., & Dahl, L. (2012). Iodine intake in human nutrition: a systematic literature review. Food Nutr Res, 56. https://doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v56i0.19731
Güngör, D., Nadaud, P., LaPergola, C. C., et al. (2019a). Infant milk-feeding practices and childhood leukemia: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr, 109(Suppl_7), 757S-771S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy306
Güngör, D., Nadaud, P., LaPergola, C. C., et al. (2019b). Infant milk-feeding practices and food allergies, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma throughout the life span: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr, 109(Suppl_7), 772S-799S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy283
Güngör, D., Nadaud, P., LaPergola, C. C., et al. (2019c). Infant milk-feeding practices and cardiovascular disease outcomes in offspring: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr, 109(Suppl_7), 800S-816S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy332
Güngör, D., Nadaud, P., LaPergola, C. C., et al. (2019d). Infant milk-feeding practices and diabetes outcomes in offspring: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr, 109(Suppl_7), 817S-837S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy311
Güngör, D., Nadaud, P., LaPergola, C. C., et al. (2019e). Infant milk-feeding practices and diagnosed celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease in offspring: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr, 109(Suppl_7), 838S-851S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy371
Halldorsson, T. I., Birgisdottir, B. E., Dudele, A., et al. (in press). Preparatory work for the update of the tolerable upper intake levels for manganese. EFSA Supporting Publications.
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Appendix 3. NNR2023 modified AMSTAR 2

As explained in the background paper on the AMSTAR 2 tool (Shea et al., 2017), reviewers of systematic reviews should agree on how AMSTAR 2 should be used. It also emphasizes that the “critical” domains are suggestions, and that reviewers add or substitute other critical domains. Further, their criteria for overall rating of reviews are “advisory”. These aspects are often overlooked.
To harmonize the quality appraisal, we have created a modified version of AMSTAR 2 that conforms better to the research questions for NNR2023, instructions for scoping reviews, as well as the “Handbook” for de novo systematic reviews (Arnesen et al., 2020). We have also tried to make it more focussed on sources of bias in the review methodology.
It is emphasized that this tool also applies to systematic reviews including only observational studies. Of major changes, we have removed question 3, “Did the review authors explain their selection of the study designs for inclusion in the review?”, while question 12 and 13 have been combined into one question (question 11 in this version). 
For the list of “critical” domains, we have changed question 7 (now 6), “Did the review authors provide a list of excluded studies and justify the exclusions?” to a non-critical domain, as it does not clearly address the internal validity of the review, and as it may have been subject to the journals’ space limitations. The Cochrane handbook also states that “The list of excluded studies should be as brief as possible”. We do still acknowledge that it is good practice to report excluded studies with justifications (and in line with the NNR 2022 “Handbook”), and have therefore not removed the item itself.
Finally, we have developed an “algorithm” for making the overall rating:
 
Critical domains
Non-critical domains
High confidence
All YES, and
0-2 NO
Moderate confidence
All YES, and
3 or more NO
Low confidence
1 NO, and
0-2 NO
Critically low confidence
1 NO, and
3 or more NO
Critically low confidence
2 or more NO
 
Thus, for “high” or “moderate” ratings, all critical domains must be fulfilled. If there are 2 or more critical domains lacking, it will receive a “critically low” rating regardless of the number of non-critical domains fulfilled.
The modified AMSTAR 2 form is presented below:

References for Appendix 3

Arnesen, E. K., Christensen, J. J., Andersen, R., et al. (2020). The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2022 – Handbook for systematic reviews. Food Nutr Res, 64 4404 https://doi.org/10.29219/fnr.v64.4404
Shea, B. J., Reeves, B. C., Wells, G., et al. (2017). AMSTAR 2: a critical appraisal tool for systematic reviews that include randomised or non-randomised studies of healthcare interventions, or both. BMJ, 358, j4008. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j4008

Appendix 4. Body size and energy requirement estimations 

Reference weights

To determine reference weights for adults (Table 1), weights were calculated based on heights of recent population-based surveys of the Nordic and Baltic countries and scaled to a BMI of 23 kg/m2 .
For infants and children up to 6 years of age, data are measured body weights and heights from published growth curves from Denmark (2014), Estonia (2013), Finland (2011), Norway (2013), and Sweden (2002) (Table 2).
Weights for 6–17-year-olds were calculated from measured heights from growth curves from Denmark (2014), Estonia (2013), Finland (2011), Norway (2013), and Sweden (2002), and BMI according to WHO’s reference percentiles (2007).
Table 1 Reference body weights and heights, adults 
 Age 
Body weight (kg) 
Height (cm) 
F 
18–24 y 
64.2 
75.2 
167 
181 
25–50 y  
64.1 
74.8 
167 
180 
51–70 y 
62.5 
73.0 
165 
178 
>70 y 
60.6 
70.6 
162 
175 
Pregnant
76.4
 
167
 
Lactating
62.4
 
167
 
Table 2 Weight and height in children
A) Girls
Age (years)
Height (cm)
Weight (kg)
BMI 50th percentiles
0
50.3
3.5
 
1
75.3
9.7
 
2
87.2
12.4
 
3
95.7
14.6
 
4
103.5
16.8
 
5
110.6
19.0
15.2
6
118.7
21.6
15.3
7
124.7
24.0
15.4
8
130.5
26.7
15.7
9
136.1
29.8
16.1
10
142.0
33.5
16.6
11
148.1
37.7
17.2
12
154.4
42.9
18.0
13
159.8
48.0
18.8
14
163.4
52.3
19.6
15
165.4
55.3
20.2
16
166.7
57.5
20.7
17
167.4
58.8
21.0
B) Boys
Age (years)
Height (cm)
Weight (kg)
BMI 50th percentiles
0
50.9
3.6
 
1
77.1
10.4
 
2
88.6
13.2
 
3
96.9
15.2
 
4
104.6
17.4
 
5
111.5
19.3
15.3
6
119.7
21.9
15.3
7
125.9
24.6
15.5
8
131.6
27.2
15.7
9
137.1
30.1
16.0
10
142.5
33.3
16.4
11
147.8
36.9
16.9
12
153.7
41.4
17.5
13
160.7
47.0
18.2
14
167.3
53.2
19.0
15
173.3
59.4
19.8
16
177.0
64.2
20.5
17
179.3
67.8
21.1

Calculation of energy requirements

Infants. As described by Cloetens and Ellegård (2023), the estimated daily energy requirement (per kg body weight) for infants was based upon the approach of FAO/WHO/UNU (Table 3).
Table 3 Estimated average daily energy requirements (per kg body weight) for infants 1–12 months (adapted from Cloetens & Ellegård, 2023).
Age (months)
Average daily energy requirements
 kJ/kg body weight
 
Boys
Girls
1
486
469
3
411
404
6
339
342
12
337
333
Children >1 y and adults. To calculate resting energy expenditure (REE) for children, adolescents and adults, we used the predictive equations by Henry (2005) (also called Oxford equations), shown in Table 4, as described by Cloetens & Ellegård (2023). The estimated REE is shown in Table 5.
Table 4. Equations for resting energy expenditure (BEE), adapted from Cloetens & Ellergård (2023).
Age (Years)
BEE
Girls
<3
3–10
11–18
 
0.127 W + 2.94 H – 1.20
0.0666 W + 0.878 H + 1.46
0.0393 W + 1.04 H + 1.93
Women
19–30
31–60
61–70
>70
 
0.0433 W + 2.57 H – 1.180
0.0342W + 2.10 H – 0.0486
0.0356 W + 1.76 H + 0.0448
0.0356 W + 1.76 H + 0.0448
Boys
<3
3–10
11–18
 
0.118 W + 3.59 H – 1.55
0.0632 W + 1.31 H +1.28
0.0651 W + 1.11 H + 1.25
Men
19–30
31–60
61–70
>70
 
0.0600 W + 1.31 H + 0.473
0.0476 W + 2.26 H – 0.574
0.0478 W 0+ 2.26 H – 1.070
0.0478 W 0+ 2.26 H – 1.070
As can be seen in Table 4, the equations by Henry (2005) were originally developed (and used in NNR2012) for the age groups 0–3 y, 3–10 y, 10–18 y, 18–30 y, 30–60 and >60 y, which is different than the age bands used in NNR2023.
Therefore, the Henry equations originally for children aged <3 y were used for the group 1–3 y in NNR2023, 3–10 y were used for 4–6 y and 7–10 y, and 11–18 y were used for age groups 11–14 y and 15–17 y (Table 5). For adults, we used the equation originally for 19–30-year-olds for the group 18–24 y, 31–60 y for the group 25–50 y, and 61 y for 51–70 y and >70 y (Table 5).
Note that Cloetens & Ellegård (2023) recommend in their review that for people above 75 y, 0.5–1.0 kg should be subtracted from the average weights for every 5 years above the age of 75 y.
For pregnant women (50 years), we used an average of the REE predicted for adolescents 16–18 y, adults aged 18–24, and 25–50 y. We did not add extra energy need during pregnancy beyond the assumed weight gain (14 kg).
 For lactating women, we added 2.0 MJ to the REE predicted for adolescents and adults aged 16–50 y, assuming a need for about 2.7 MJ/d for exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6–8 months and on average 0.72 MJ/d mobilized from fat stores (see Cloetens & Ellegård, 2023)
Table 5. Estimated BEE per life-stage group used in NNR2023
Life stage
Reference weight (kg)
Reference height (m)
BEE equation from Henry (2005)
BEE (MJ/d)
CHILDREN
1-3 y
13.6
0.92
Girls: 0.127 W + 2.94 H – 1.20
Boys: 0.118 W + 3.59 H – 1.55
3.3
4-6 y
20.7
1.15
Girls: 0.0666 W + 0.878 H + 1.46
Boys: 0.0632 W + 1.31 H +1.28
4.0
7-10 y
30.8
1.37
Girls: 0.0666 W + 0.878 H + 1.46
Boys: 0.0632 W + 1.31 H +1.28
4.9
FEMALES
11-14 y
46.5
1.57
0.0393 W + 1.04 H + 1.93
5.4
15-17 y
57.8
1.67
0.0393 W + 1.04 H + 1.93
5.9
18-24 y
64.2
1.67
0.0433 W + 2.57 H – 1.180
5.9
25-50 y
64.1
1.67
0.0342W + 2.10 H – 0.0486
5.7
51-70 y
62.5
1.65
0.0356 W + 1.76 H + 0.0448
5.2
> 70 y
60.6
1.62
0.0356 W + 1.76 H + 0.0448
5.1
Pregnancy
≤ 50 y
76.4
1.67
Average of 16–50y
6.4
Lactation
≤ 50 y
62.4
1.67
Average of 16–50y
7.8
MALES
11-14 y
48.2
1.61
0.0651 W + 1.11 H + 1.25
6.2
15-17 y
65.6
1.77
0.0651 W + 1.11 H + 1.25
7.5
18-24 y
75.2
1.81
0.0600 W + 1.31 H + 0.473
7.4
25-50 y
74.8
1.80
0.0476 W + 2.26 H – 0.574
7.1
51-70 y
73.0
1.78
0.0478 W 0+ 2.26 H – 1.070
6.4
> 70 y
70.6
1.75
0.0478 W 0+ 2.26 H – 1.070
6.3
The reference energy intakes were determined by multiplying the BEE predicted by the Henry equations by PAL. PAL values of 1.4, 1.6 and 1.8 reflect a low/sedentary, moderate and active physical lifestyle, respectively.
Table 6. Reference values for daily energy expenditure for adults expressed as kcal/day1  
Age, years 
Reference weight, kg 
BEE, kcal/d 
Average PAL 1.4, kcal/d 
Average PAL 1.6, kcal/d 
Active PAL 1.8, kcal/d 
FEMALES  
18-24 y
64.2 
1410 
1984 
2247 
2533 
25-50 y
64.1 
1362 
1912 
2151 
2438 
51-70 y
62.5 
1243 
1721 
1984 
2223 
>70 y
60.6 
1219 
1697 
1960 
2199 
MALES 
18-24 y
75.2 
1769 
2486 
2820 
3155 
25-50 y
74.8 
1697 
2366 
2701 
3035 
51-70 y
73.0 
1530 
2151 
2462 
2772 
>70 y
70.6 
1506 
2103 
2414 
2701 
Pregnancy 
≤50 y
76.4 
1530 
2141 
2447 
2753 
Lactation³ 
≤50 y
62.4 
1864 
2610 
2983 
3356 
 1 1 MJ = 239 kcal 
Table 7. Reference values for daily energy expenditure for children and adolescents, 1–17 years, expressed as kcal/day1
Age 
Reference weight, kg1 
BEE, kcal/d 
Estimated energy requirement, kcal/d2
1-3 y 
13.6 
789 
1099 
4-6 y 
20.7 
956 
1506 
7-10 y 
30.8 
1171 
1864 
Females   
11-14 y 
46.5 
1291 
2199 
15-17 y 
57.8 
1410 
2414 
Males   
11-14 y 
48.2 
1482 
2510 
15-17 y 
65.6 
1793 
3035 
1 1 MJ = 239 kcal 
2 PAL values: 1.4 for age 1–3 y, 1.6 for age 4–10 y, 1.7 for age 11–17 y 

References for Appendix 4

Abel, M. H., & Totland, T. H. (2020). Kartlegging av kostholdsvaner og kroppsvekt hos voksne i Norge basert på selvrapportering – Resultater fra Den nasjonale folkehelseundersøkelsen 2020 [Self reported dietary habits and body weight in adults in Norway – Results from the National Public Health Survey 2020]. Oslo: National Institute of Public Health. https://www.fhi.no/globalassets/dokumenterfiler/rapporter/2021/rapport-nhus-2020.pdf
Amcoff, E., Edberg, A., Barbieri, H. E., et al. (2012). Riksmaten – vuxna 2010-11: Livsmedels- och näringsintag bland vuxna i Sverige (Riksmaten- Adults 2010-11: Food and nutrition intakes among adults in Sweden). Uppsala: Livsmedelsverket. https://www.livsmedelsverket.se/globalassets/publikationsdatabas/rapporter/2011/riksmaten_2010_20111.pdf
Cloetens, L., & Ellegård, L. (2023). Energy. In Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2023. Nordic Council of Ministers.
Grīnberga, D., Velika, B., Pudule, I., et al. (2020). Latvijas iedzīvotāju veselību ietekmējošo paradumu pētījums, 2020 (Health Behaviour among Latvian Adult Population, 2020). Riga: The Centra for Disease Prevention and Control (CDPC). https://www.spkc.gov.lv/lv/media/16574/download
Gunnarsdottir, S., Gudmannsdottir, R., Thorgeirsdottir, H., et al. (2022). Hvað borða Íslendingar? Könnun á mataræði Íslendinga 2019-2021 (What do Icelanders eat? Survey of the diet of Icelanders 2019-2021). Reykjavik: Directorate of Health and Unit for Nutrition Research, University of Iceland. https://maturinnokkar.hi.is/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/Hvadbordaislendingar_vefur_endanlegt.pdf
Henry, C. J. (2005). Basal metabolic rate studies in humans: measurement and development of new equations. Public Health Nutr, 8(7A), 1133-1152. https://doi.org/10.1079/phn2005801
Juliusson, P. B., Roelants, M., Nordal, E., et al. (2013). Growth references for 0-19 year-old Norwegian children for length/height, weight, body mass index and head circumference. Ann Hum Biol, 40(3), 220-227. https://doi.org/10.3109/03014460.2012.759276
National Institute for Health Development. (2021). Health Statistics and Health Research Database for Estonia. https://statistika.tai.ee/pxweb/en/Andmebaas/Andmebaas__01Rahvastik/
Nurk, E., Nelis, K., Saamel, M., et al. (2017). National Dietary Survey among 11‐74 years old individuals in Estonia. EFSA Supporting Publications, 14(4). https://doi.org/10.2903/sp.efsa.2017.EN-1198
Pedersen, A. N., Christensen, T., Matthiessen, J., et al. (2015). Danskernes kostvaner 2011-2013. Søburg: DTU Fødevareinstituttet.
Pitsi, T. (2017). Eesti toitumis- ja liikumissoovitused 2015. Tallinn: National Institute for Health Development.
Salm, E., Käärik, E., & Kaarma, H. (2013). The growth charts of Estonian schoolchildren. Comparative analysis. Papers on Anthropology, 22. https://doi.org/10.12697/poa.2013.22.19
Saari, A., Sankilampi, U., Hannila, M. L., et al. (2011). New Finnish growth references for children and adolescents aged 0 to 20 years: Length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and body mass index-for-age. Ann Med, 43(3), 235-248. https://doi.org/10.3109/07853890.2010.515603
Tinggaard, J., Aksglaede, L., Sorensen, K., et al. (2014). The 2014 Danish references from birth to 20 years for height, weight and body mass index. Acta Paediatr, 103(2), 214-224. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.12468
Valsta, L., Kaartinen, N., Tapanainen, H., et al. (2018). Ravitsemus Suomessa – FinRavinto 2017 -tutkimus (Nutrition in Finland – The National FinDiet 2017 Survey). Helsinki: Finnish institute for health and welfare (THL).
WHO. (2007). Growth reference data for 5-19 years. https://www.who.int/tools/growth-reference-data-for-5to19-years
Wikland, K. A., Luo, Z. C., Niklasson, A., & Karlberg, J. (2002). Swedish population-based longitudinal reference values from birth to 18 years of age for height, weight and head circumference. Acta Paediatr, 91(7), 739-754. https://doi.org/10.1080/08035250213216

Appendix 5. Calculation of DRVs

Table 1. Adults
Vitamins
Nutrient
Criteria of adequacy for deriving DRVs
Source for deriving DRVs
Type of data
Factorial approach
CV % to derive RI
Type of DRV
Vitamin A
RE
Maintenance of liver stores (20 µg retinol/g liver)
EFSA
Factorial method
Target liver concentration (20 μg retinol/g) × body/liver retinol stores ratio [1.25] × liver/body weight ratio (%) [2.4 %] × fractional catabolic rate of retinol (%) [0.7 %] × (1/efficiency of body storage (%) [50 %]) × reference body weight (kg) × 10³
15
AR
RI
Thiamin
mg
Biomarker and erythrocyte transketolase activity coefficient
EFSA
Dose-response
 
0.072 mg/MJ
20
AR
RI
Riboflavin
mg
Biomarker
EFSA
Dose-response
 
10
AR
RI
Niacin
NE
Biomarker
EFSA
Dose-response
 
1.3 NE/MJ
10
AR
RI
Pantothenic acid
mg
Observed intake
EFSA
Dietary surveys
 
 
AI
p-AR
Vitamin B6
mg
Biomarker (plasma pyridoxal 5-phosphate of 30 nmol/l)
EFSA
Dose-response
 
10
AR
RI
Folate
µg DFE
Biormarkers (serum and red blood cell folate of  ≥10 and ≥340 nmol/L, respectively;  plasma homocysteine)
EFSA
Dose-response
 
15
AR
RI
Vitamin B12
µg
Vitamin B12 biomarkers; observed intakes
EFSA
Interventional and cross-sectional studies; dietary surveys
 
 
AI
p-AR
Biotin
µg
Observed intakes
EFSA
Dietary surveys
 
 
AI
p-AR
Vitamin C
mg
Biomarker
Females: Extrapolated from males
EFSA
Dose-response, corrected for losses and absorption efficiency [80 %]
Females: Extrapolated from males with isometric scaling
 
10
AR
RI
Vitamin D
µg
Biomarker (25(OH)D above 50 nmol/l)
NNR2023: Brustad and Meyer (2023)
Dose-response, regression
 
15
AR
RI
Vitamin E
mg
Basal requirement + prevention of PUFA oxidation
Raederstorff et al. (2015)
Factorial approach
Basal requirement [4 mg TE/d] + 0,5 x PUFA in grams (at 5 E%)
 
AI
p-AR
Vitamin K
µg
Biomarkers (functional prothrombin, g-carboxyglutamic acid)
EFSA
Dose-response
1 µg/kg bodyweight
 
AI
p-AR
Choline
mg
Observed intake; prevention of deficiency symptoms
EFSA
Dietary surveys; depletion-repletion study
 
 
AI
p-AR
p-AR = Provisional AR derived from AI
Minerals
Nutrient
Criteria for deriving DRVs
Source for deriving DRVs
Type of data
Factorial approach
CV % to derive RI
Type of DRV
Calcium
mg
Replacement of calcium losses
EFSA
Dose-response
 
RI based on 97.5th percentile of calcium null balance
AR
RI
Phospho­rus
mg
Recommended calcium intake; molar ratio of calcium to phosphorus (1.4:1)
EFSA
Studies on bone mineral content
 
 
AI
p-AR
Potas­sium
mg
Blood pressure and stroke risk
EFSA
Intervention and prospective observational studies
 
 
AI
p-AR
Magne­sium
mg
Observed intake
EFSA
Dietary surveys
 
 
AI
p-AR
Copper
µg
Biomarkers (including plasma copper, serum ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity)
IOM
Depletion-repletion studies
 
15
AR
RI
Fluoride
µg
Prevention of caries
EFSA
Intervention and observational studies in children
0.05 mg/kg body weight
 
AI
p-AR
Iron
mg
Replacement of daily iron loss
NNR2023: Domellöf and Sjöberg (2023)
 
Basal loss (14 µg/kg/day) + menstrual loss in females (0.45 mg/day), absorption efficiency 15 %
RI based on 95th percentile menstrual loss in females (1.32 mg/day); CV 15 % in males
AR
RI
Zinc
mg

Zinc balance, accounting for absorption efficiency based on phytate intake
EFSA
Modelling, isotope dilution and balance studies
Physiological requirement (0.642 + 0.038 x kg body weight), absorption efficiency based phytate intake (600 mg/day used in NNR2023)
10
AR
RI
Iodine
µg
Urinary iodine associated with prevention of goitre (extrapolated from children)
EFSA
Cross-sectional study in children
 
 
AI
p-AR
Selenium
µg
Biomarker
NNR2023: Alexander and Olsen (2023), EFSA
Intervention study
1.2 µg/kg body weight
 
AI
p-AR
Manga­nese
mg
Observed intake
Manganese homeostasis
EFSA
Dietary surveys, balance studies
 
 
AI
p-AR
Molybde­num
µg
Observed intake (lower end)
Molybdenum homeostasis
EFSA
Dietary surveys, balance studies
 
 
AI
p-AR
p-AR = Provisional AR derived from AI
Table 2. Pregnant/Lactating
Vitamins
Nutrient
Criteria of adequacy for deriving DRVs
Source for deriving DRVs
Type of data
Type of scaling
Factorial approach
CV % to derive RI
Type of DRV
Vitamin A
RE
Maintenance of liver stores (20 µg retinol/g liver)
EFSA
Factorial method
 
Pregnant: AR for non-pregnant females + fetal and maternal tissues accumulation [3600 µg], correcting for retinol efficiency of storage [50 %]
15
AR
RI
Lactating: AR for non-lactating women + amount secreted in breast milk [424 µg/d], correcting for absorption efficiency [80 %]
Thiamin
mg
Biomarker and erythrocyte transketolase activity coefficient
EFSA
Dose-response
 
 
0.072 mg/MJ
20
AR
RI
Riboflavin
mg
Biomarker
EFSA
Dose-response
Pregnant: Allometric from non-pregnant
Lactating: AR for non-lactating + amount secreted in breast milk [0.291 mg], correcting for absorption efficiency [95 %]
10
AR
RI
Niacin
NE
Biomarker
EFSA
Dose-response
 
 
1.3 NE/MJ
10
AR
RI
Pantothenic acid
mg
Observed intake
EFSA
Dietary surveys
 
Lactating: AI for non-lactating + amount secreted in breast milk [2 mg]
 
AI
p-AR
Vitamin B6
mg
Biomarker (plasma pyridoxal 5-phosphate of 30 nmol/l)
EFSA
Dose-response
 
Pregnant: Non-pregnant + (Vitamin B6 in human tissue [0.0037] x gestational weight gain [14 kg] /bioavailability [75%])/pregnancy duration in days [280]
10
AR
RI
Lactating: Non-lactating + breast milk concentration [0,13 mg/l], correcting for absorption efficiency [75%]
Folate
µg DFE
Biomarkers (serum and red blood cell folate ≥10 and ≥340 nmol/L, respectively;  plasma homocysteine)
EFSA
Pregnant: Controlled study
 
Dose-response
 
Pregnant:
 
AI
Lactating: AR for non-lactating + breast milk excretion, 50 % absorption
15
AR
RI
Vitamin B12
µg
Vitamin B12 biomarkers; observed intakes
EFSA
Interventional and cross-sectional studies; dietary surveys
 
Pregnant: AI for non-pregnant + 0,5 µg/d
 
AI
p-AR
Lactating: AI for non-lactating + breast milk extraction [0.5 µg/l], 40 % absorption
Biotin
µg
Observed intakes
EFSA
Dietary surveys
 
Lactating: AI for non-lactating + 4 µg
 
AI
p-AR
Vitamin C
mg
Biomarker
Females: Extrapolated from males
EFSA
Dose-response, corrected for losses and absorption efficiency [80 %]
Females: Extrapolated from males with isometric scaling
Isometric, from men
 
10
AR
RI
Vitamin D
µg
Biomarker (25(OH)D above 50 nmol/l)
NNR2023: Brustad and Meyer (2023)
Dose-response, regression
 
 
15
AR
RI
Vitamin E
mg
Basal requirement + prevention of PUFA oxidation
Raederstorff et al. (2015)
Factorial approach
 
Basal requirement [4 mg TE/d] + 0,5 x PUFA in grams (at 5 E%)
 
AI
p-AR
Vitamin K
µg
Biomarkers (functional prothrombin, g-carboxyglutamic acid)
EFSA
Dose-response
 
1 µg/kg bodyweight
 
AI
p-AR
Choline
mg
Observed intake; prevention of deficiency symptoms
EFSA
Dietary surveys; depletion-repletion study
Pregnant: Isometric, from non-pregnant
Lactating: AI for non-lactating + breast milk secretion [120 mg]
 
AI
p-AR
p-AR = Provisional AR derived from AI
Minerals
Nutrient
Criteria for deriving DRVs
Source for deriving DRVs
Type of data
Factorial approach
CV % to derive RI
Type of DRV
Calcium
mg
Replacement of calcium losses
EFSA
Dose-response
 
RI based on 97.5th percentile of calcium null balance
AR
RI
Phosphorus
mg
Recommended calcium intake; molar ratio of calcium to phosphorus (1.4:1)
EFSA
Studies on bone mineral content
 
 
AI
p-AR
Potassium
mg
Blood pressure and stroke risk
EFSA
Intervention and prospective observational studies
 
 
AI
p-AR
Magnesium
mg
Observed intake
EFSA
Dietary surveys
 
 
AI
p-AR
Copper
µg
Biomarkers (including plasma copper, serum ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity)
IOM
Depletion-repletion studies
Pregnant: AR for non-pregnant + 1000 µg
15
AR
RI
Lactating: AR for non-lactating + breast milk secretion, 67 % absorption
Fluoride
µg
Prevention of caries
EFSA
Intervention and observational studies in children
0.05 mg/kg body weight (based on pre-pregnancy weight)
 
AI
p-AR
Iron
mg
Replacement of daily iron loss
NNR2023: Domellöf and Sjöberg (2023)
 
Pregnant: Basal loss [14 µg/kg/day] + 1.91 µg/day needed for fetal growth, placenta and umbilical cord, and average blood loss
Pregnant: 15
 
 
AR
RI
As non-lactating
Lactating: RI based on 95th percentile of menstrual loss (1.32 mg/day)
Zinc
mg
Zinc balance, accounting for absorption efficiency based on phytate intake
EFSA
Modelling, isotope dilution and balance studies
Pregnant: AR for non-pregnant + 0.4 mg corrected for fractional absorption of 30 % [AR + 1.3 mg/d]
10
AR
RI
Lactating: AR for non-lactating + 1.1 mg corrected for fractional absorption of 45 % [AR + 2.4 mg/d]
Iodine
µg
Urinary iodine associated with prevention of goitre (extrapolated from children)
EFSA
Cross-sectional study in children
Pregnant: AI for non-pregnant + 50 µg/d for increased thyroid hormone production and iodine uptake by the fetus, placenta and amniotic fluid
 
AI
p-AR
Lactating: AI for non-lactating + 50 µg/d
Selenium
µg
Biomarker
NNR2023: Alexander and Olsen (2023), EFSA
Intervention study
1.2 µg/kg body weight
 
Lactating: AI for non-lactating + 10 µg
 
AI
p-AR
Manganese
mg
Observed intake
Manganese homeostasis
EFSA
Dietary surveys, balance studies
 
 
AI
p-AR
Molybdenum
µg
Observed intake (lower end)
Molybdenum homeostasis
EFSA
Dietary surveys, balance studies
 
 
AI
p-AR
Table 3. Children (1–17 years)
Vitamins
Nutrient
Criteria of adequacy for deriving DRVs
Source for deriving DRVs
Type of data
Type of scaling
Factorial approach
CV % to derive RI
Type of DRV
Vitamin A
RE
Maintainance of liver stores (20 µg retinol/g liver)
EFSA
Factorial method
 
Target liver concentration (20 μg retinol/g) × body/liver retinol stores ratio [1.25] × liver/body weight ratio (%) [age-specific values] × fractional catabolic rate of retinol (%) [0.7 %] × (1/efficiency of body storage (%) [50 %]) × reference body weight (kg) × 1 + growth factor) x 10³
15
AR
RI
Thiamin
mg
Biomarker and erythrocyte transketolase activity coefficient
EFSA
Dose-response
 
 
0.072 mg/MJ
20
AR
RI
Riboflavin
mg
Extrapolated from adult AR
EFSA
 
Allometric + growth factors
 
10
AR
RI
Niacin
NE
Biomarker
EFSA
Dose-response
 
 
1.3 NE/MJ
10
AR
RI
Pantothenic acid
mg
Observed intake
EFSA
Dietary surveys
 
 
 
AI
p-AR
Vitamin B6
mg
Extrapolated from adult AR
EFSA
 
Allometric + growth factors
 
10
AR
RI
Folate
µg DFE
Extrapolated from adult AR
EFSA
 
Allometric + growth factors
 
15
AR
RI
Vitamin B12
µg
Extrapolated from adult AI
EFSA
 
Allometric + growth factors
 
 
AI
p-AR
Biotin
µg
Observed intake
EFSA
Dietary surveys
 
 
 
AI
p-AR
Vitamin C
mg
Extrapolated from adult AR
EFSA
 
Isometric
 
10
AR
RI
Vitamin D
µg
Biomarker (25(OH)D above 50 nmol/l)
NNR2023: Brustad and Meyer (2023)
 
 
 
15
AR
RI
Vitamin E
mg
Basal requirement + prevention of PUFA oxidation
Raederstorff et al. (2015)
Factorial approach
 
Basal requirement [4 mg TE/d] + 0,5 x PUFA in grams (at 5 E%)
 
AI
p-AR
Vitamin K
µg
As adults
EFSA
 
 
1 µg/kg bodyweight
 
AI
p-AR
Choline
mg
Extrapolation from adult AI
EFSA
 
Allometric + growth factors
 
 
AI
p-AR
p-AR = Provisional AR derived from AI
Minerals
Nutrient
Criteria for deriving DRVs
Source for deriving DRVs
Type of data
Type of scaling
Factorial approach
CV % to derive RI
Type of DRV
Calcium
mg
Calcium accretion in bone + replacement of
obligatory losses
EFSA
Observa­tional, isotope and controlled feeding studies
 
Age-specific (urinary losses + faecal losses + dermal losses + calcium accretion in bone)/fractional absorption
10
AR
RI
 
Average AR and RI for used for girls and boys 11–17 y
Phospho­rus
mg
Recommended calcium intake; molar ratio of calcium to phosphorus (1.4:1)
EFSA
Studies on bone mineral content
 
 
 
AI
p-AR
Potas­sium
mg
Extrapolated from adult AI
EFSA
 
Isometric + growth factors
 
 
AI
p-AR
Magne­sium
mg
Observed intake
EFSA
Dietary surveys
 
 
 
AI
p-AR
Copper
µg
Extrapolated from adult AR
IOM
 
Allomet­ric + growth factors
 
15
AR
RI
Fluoride
µg
Prevention of caries
EFSA
Interven­tion and observa­tional studies in children
 
0.05 mg/kg body weight
 
AI
p-AR
Iron
mg
Replacement of daily iron loss + requirement for growth
NNR2023: Domellöf and Sjöberg (2023)
 
 
Basal loss (age-specific) + iron need for daily growth (+ menstrual loss [0.45 mg/day] in girls 11–17 y), absorption efficiency (1–10 y: 10 %, 11–17 y: 15 %)
Children 1–10 y and boys 15–17 y: 15
 
Adolescents 11–17: RI based on 95th percentile menstrual loss in girls (0.89 mg/day in 11–14 y, 1.32 mg/day in 15–17 y)
AR
RI
Zinc
mg

Zinc balance, loss extrapolated from adults + requirement for growth
EFSA
 
Urinary loss: isometric
Sweat loss: allo­metric
Zinc loss (urinary, integumenal, faecal, menses in girls 11–17 y, semen in boys 15–17 y) + requirement for growth, absorption efficiency 30 %
10
AR
RI
Iodine
µg
Urinary iodine associated with prevention of goitre
EFSA
Cross-sectional
 
100 μg/L x urinary volume [L/day), absorption efficiency 92 %
 
 
AI
p-AR
Selenium
µg
Extrapolated from adult AI
NNR2023: Alexander and Olsen (2023); EFSA
 
Isometric + growth factor
 
 
AI
p-AR
Manga­nese
mg
Extrapolated from adult AI
EFSA
 
Isometric
 
 
AI
p-AR
Molybde­num
µg
Extrapolated from adult AI
EFSA
 
Isometric
 
 
AI
p-AR
p-AR = Provisional AR derived from AI
Table 4. Infants (7–11 months)
Vitamins
Nutrient
Criteria of adequacy for deriving DRVs
Source for deriving DRVs
Type of data
Type of scaling
Factorial approach
CV % to derive RI
Type of DRV
Vitamin A
RE
Maintainance of liver stores (20 µg retinol/g liver)
EFSA
Factorial method
 
Target liver concentration (20 μg retinol/g) × body/liver retinol stores ratio [1.25] × liver/body weight ratio (%) [4 %] × fractional catabolic rate of retinol (%) [0.7 %] × (1/efficiency of body storage (%) [50 %]) × body weight (kg) × 1 + growth factor) x 10³
15
AR
RI
Thiamin
mg
Biomarker and erythrocyte transketolase activity coefficient
EFSA
Dose-response
 
0.072 mg/MJ
20
AR
RI
Riboflavin
mg
Extrapolated from exclusively breastfed infants 0–6 months
EFSA
Breastmilk composi­tion
Allometric
 
 
AI
p-AR
Niacin
NE
Biomarker
EFSA
Dose-response
 
 
1.3 NE/MJ
10
AR
RI
Pan­tothenic acid
mg
Extrapolated from exclusively breastfed infants 0–6 months
EFSA
Breastmilk composi­tion
Allometric
 
 
AI
p-AR
Vitamin B6
mg
Average of upwards extrapolation from exclusively breastfed infants 0–6 months and downwards extrapolation from adults
EFSA
Breastmilk composi­tion
Allometric (+ growth factors when extrapolating from adults)
 
 
AI
p-AR
Folate
µg DFE
Extrapolated from exclusively breastfed infants 0–6 months
EFSA
Breastmilk composi­tion
Allometric
 
 
AI
p-AR
Vitamin B12
µg
Extrapolated from adult AI
EFSA
 
Allometric + growth factors
 
 
AI
p-AR
Biotin
µg
Extrapolated from exclusively breastfed infants 0–6 months
EFSA
Breastmilk composi­tion
Allometric
 
 
AI