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Nordic Council of Ministers

The Nordic Council of Ministers is the o°cial body for inter-governmental co-operation in the Nordic Region. The Prime Ministers’ vision is that the Nordic region will become the most sustainable and integrated region in the world by 2030.
Learn more at: www.norden.org


Systemiq drives the Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals by transforming markets and business models in five key systems: nature and food, materials and circularity, energy, urban areas, and sustainable finance.
Learn more at: www.systemiq.earth
Analysis and report developed by


Systemiq core team: Yoni Shiran, Jose de la Fuente, Cloé Ragot, Leonard von Boetticher, Lukas Fuchs, Dario Mauth, Shajeeshan Lingeswaran, Joshua Hahn, Ulrike Stein.
Design and editorial: Sam Goult and Carolyn Boyle.
The authors of this report wish to thank the following reviewers and contributors to acknowledge their expertise and valuable discussions:
Reviewers or their institutions do not necessarily endorse the report’s findings.
Julien Boucher (Environmental Action), Nandini Kumar (CII-Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Development), Crispian Lao (Philippine Alliance for Recycling and Material Sustainability), Professor Kim Ragaert (Maastricht University), Professor Richard Thompson (Portsmouth University). Tim Huntington (Poseidon Aquatic Resource Management Ltd) on fisheries and aquaculture, Amparo Perez Roda and Kelsey Richardson (Food and Agriculture Organization) on fisheries and aquaculture; Rich Gower and Lucy Tanner (Tearfund) on the informal sector; and Sian Sunderland (A Plastic Planet) and Professor Terry Collins (Carnegie Mellon University) on health risks.
Systemiq reviewers and contributors
Ben Dixon, Alexandre Kremer, Asif Alam, Martin Ciminale, Felix Cornehl.
Other contributors
These organizations do not necessarily endorse the report’s findings.
High Ambition Coalition to End Plastic Pollution, Wilson Center China Environment Forum, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, The Pew Charitable Trusts, University of Wollongong, Plastics Europe, Minderoo Foundation, Norsk Institutt for Vannforskning, The Ocean Clean-Up.