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This report has been commissioned by the Nordic Working Group for Environment and Economics (NME). The report has been prepared by a consortium led by Anthesis AB in cooperation with Menon Economics and Copenhagen University. The project team has been led by Stefan Åström from Anthesis AB. The other participants in the project team were Alexander Eriksson, Erik Gråd and Niels Baumert from Anthesis AB, Henrik Lindhjem and Erika Karttinen from Menon Economics and Christian Fromberg and Jette Bredahl from Copenhagen University.
The report presents an overview of different compensation measures which have been implemented in the Nordic countries in order to compensate consumers and other groups in society for higher energy prices in the aftermath of the Covid pandemic and as a consequence of the war in Ukraine. The report evaluates selected compensation measures, with a focus on their effect on income distribution, climate and environment. It also includes a discussion on alternative and likely more appropriate compensation measures that could have been taken. The main constraint of the analysis was data availability and the limited research available on impacts at the time when the report was written.
Members of the Nordic Working Group for Environment and Economy have provided comments and inputs to the report during the work. The authors of the report are responsible for the content as well as the assessments and recommendations, which do not necessarily reflect the views and the positions of the governments in the Nordic countries.

February 2024

Magnus Cederlöf
Chair of the Nordic Working Group for Environment and Economics