Denmark held the presidency of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2020 and initiated in this context the Mental Distress among Nordic Youth Project. As part of the project, the National Board of Social Services in Denmark has established a Nordic Network (hereinafter referred to as 'the Network') consisting of representatives from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. During the project period 2020–2022, the network has been tasked with:
The National Board of Social Services has published two publications based on the work done by the Network. One describes the results of the Network's mapping of knowledge on the risk and protective factors for mental distress among adolescentshttps://pub.norden.org/temanord2022-522/. The second describes the cross-sectoral collaboration between the social and health sectors in the Nordic countries in relation to youth regarding mental distress as well as examples of practices within coherent cross-sectoral interventions towards youth in mental distresshttps://pub.norden.org/temanord2022-502/.
This publication summarises the main results of the previous two mappings of risk and protective factors and examples of practices, respectively, and concludes the Mental Distress among Nordic Youth Project with the Network's recommendations for a future joint Nordic research project focusing on Nordic youth in mental distress. The report also describes lessons learned from the cooperation among the participants of the Network, including what has worked well and what has worked less well.
More detailed information on the findings in the first two publications are available for download from www.norden.org/en.
The report is addressed to the Nordic Council of Ministers, including the Committee of Civil Servants for Social and Health Policy (EK-S) which funded the project, and the Ministry of Social Affairs and Senior Citizens and the Ministry of Children and Education in Denmark.
The National Board of Social Services in Denmark would like to thank all the participants in the Network for good and constructive cooperation over the past two years and for their contributions to both this and the previous two publications. We would also like to thank The Norwegian Institute of Public Health, The Ministry of Social Affairs and Senior Citizens in Denmark, The Nordic Council of Ministers, NordForsk, The Nordic Welfare Centre and Nordregio, that have contributed with input to the Network's recommendations for a future joint Nordic research project focusing on mental distress among Nordic youth.
Heidi Aase, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway
Lasse Bang, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway
Sigrun Danielsdottir, Directorate of Health, Iceland
Alfheidur Gudmundsdottir, Directorate of Health, Iceland
Amanda Ternstedt, Public Health Analyst, Public Health Agency, Sweden
Petra Löfstedt, Public Health Analyst, Public Health Agency, Sweden
Christina Larsen, Ministry of Health and Ministry of Social Affairs, Greenland
Jeanett Christoffersen, Ministry of Health, Greenland
Hallur Thomsen, Social Administration of the Faroe Islands
Terhi Aalto-Setälä, Institute of Health and Welfare, Finland
Piia Karjalainen, Institute of Health and Welfare, Finland
Dag Lund Halkjær, Danish National Board of Social Services, Denmark
Rikke Plauborg, Danish National Board of Social Services, Denmark
Anne Hansen-Krogsgaard, Danish National Board of Social Services, Denmark
According to several surveys, the Nordic nations are among the happiest countries in the worldhttps://worldhappiness.report/archive/. However, this does not mean that all people in the Nordic region experience a high degree of life satisfaction and well-being. There has been a worrying increase in the number of young people who express mental distress and show signs of mental disorders across the Nordic countries in recent years.
A 2018 study showed that life satisfaction is uneven across different places in ScandinaviaBirkjær, M. (2018): In the shadow of happiness. Nordic Council of Ministers, 2018. The same study shows that a considerable number of people in the Nordic region experience poor mental well-being. 13.5 percent of all young people in the Nordic region in the 18–23 age group express either dissatisfaction with their life or unhappinessBirkjær, M. (2018): In the shadow of happiness. Nordic Council of Ministers, 2018.
Among youths, some are at greater risk of experiencing mental distress and developing mental disorders than others. The overall pattern is that a greater proportion of young women than young men indicate either being dissatisfied or unhappy (Ibid.).
Several studies also document that young people with less socio-economic resources are at greater risk of developing severe mental distress than youth with strong socio-economic backgroundsNordic Journal of Youth Research (2021): New vulnerability: nuances in our understanding of mental distress. Year 2, #2-2021, pp. 83–103. Likewise, children of parents with severe mental disordersMerikukka, M., Ristikari, T., Tuulio-Henriksson, A., Gissler, M., & Laaksonen, M. (2018). Childhood determinants for early psychiatric disability pension: a 10-year follow-up study of the 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 64(8), 715–725., children and adolescents who have been subjected to abuse, or children and adolescents who are placed outside the home are at particular risk of experiencing mental distress and developing mental disorders (Ibid.).
The purpose of the project has therefore been to create more knowledge about the reasons for the increase in mental distress among youth in the Nordic region and gain more knowledge about projects and practices with positive outcomes for the target group implemented across the social and health sectors.
Secondly, the purpose of the project is, based on the findings, to describe recommendations for a possible joint Nordic research project that can shed future light on the causes of mental distress and effective countermeasures.
In the long term, the goal is thus to create a stronger knowledge base for future efforts to address the needs of youth who experience and express mental distress, so that efforts by the social and health care sectors to a greater extent are based on effective efforts, and that a more coherent effort is created across the two sectors.
The target group for this project is young people aged 13–25 who either show signs of mental distress, are in mental distress and/or show signs of mental disorders. Model 1 illustrates the target group (the light-yellow box).
Model 1. Description of the target group in relation to sector areas
The mental health problems among adolescents manifest themselves in stress, depression, anxiety, self-harm, consumption of antidepressant medications and, in extreme cases, suicide. Suicide is a particularly the case in Greenland and Finland. Although suicide is the cause of a third of all deaths among 15 to 24-year-oldsBirkjaer, M. (2018): In the shadow of happiness. Nordic Council of Ministers, 2018 in these two countries, Finland, ranks as the happiest country according to the World Happiness Report for 2020.
There are both societal and socio-economic consequences of an increasing number of youths experiencing mental distress. The mental distress can obviously vary in severity and duration and can be accompanied by more or less extensive social and health problems. The consequences of mental distress will be different for each young person and how this affects their well-being and development. For some youth, it can be difficult to attend school or work. For others it can be difficult to structure everyday life and participate in social activities together with other young people.
This all speaks to a greater scientific and professional focus on creating the right conditions for young people to thrive. Not only will it benefit the youth affected by mental distress and their relatives, but it will also have positive socio-economic effects (Ibid.).
Despite a great amount of research on risk and protective factors to mental health in general, there is a lack of knowledge across the Nordic countries about the causes of the increase in mental distress among young people during the last decade and limited knowledge about which initiatives may strengthen mental health among youth and how.
A Nordic analysis investigates unhappiness and life circumstances. It finds poor mental health as one of several reasons for unhappiness in the Nordic region and points to a need for further future research in general structures in society that can affect mental healthBirkjaer, M. (2018): In the shadow of happiness. Nordic Council of Ministers, 2018.
Mental health initiatives are either implemented in the social services sector or the health sector in the Nordic region. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate current coherent and coordinated initiatives across the health care and social services to illustrate possible challenges to the inclusion of young people in normal everyday life at school, in spare time jobs and in activities with other children and youth.
The Network has been tasked with covering relevant knowledge about the causes of the increase in mental distress among youth in the Nordic region, including knowledge about risk and protective factors for mental distress. Each of the participating Nordic countries conducted systematic searches for peer-reviewed research published in the period 2010–2020 based on national data. Knowledge was sought about risk and protective factors associated with mental distress among youth, aged 13–25 years.
This document presents the main points from the literature study. The comprehensive report from the literature study is described in the report entitled: Nordic Cooperation on Young People's Mental Health. A Cross-Nordic Mapping of Associative Factors to the Increase of Mental Distress Among Youthhttps://pub.norden.org/temanord2022-522.
Overall, the literature search showed limited knowledge about specific causes of the increase in mental distress among young people in the Nordic countries. The literature included in the study therefore does not point to causes, but to correlations or associations between mental distress and various factors.
Based on the literature study, it is therefore not possible to conclude anything about causal relationships of the increase in mental distress among youth, but rather point to different risk and protective factors associated with mental distress.
It should be noted that mental well-being is complex. Mental well-being is an interplay of several different element that, in addition to our personal resources, opportunities and challenges, deal with social and societal influences. Therefore, explanations for mental well-being can often not be channeled down into individual topics, but they each carry a part of the explanatory factors.
The risk and protective factors are categorised as individual, social and structural factors, respectively, in the table below.
Table 1. Protective and risk factors linked to the increase in mental distress among young people
|Protective factors||Risk factors|
Table 1 illustrates a gap in identified studies focusing on protective factors on an individual level and especially with none identified studies on protective factors on a structural level.
The identified risk and protective factors from the literature study are discussed in chapters 2.2.1. through 2.2.7.
Factors related to school and education are relevant to look further into for understanding mental distress. In general, existing studies from the literature search show a connection between academic outcomes, the educational environment and student well-being.
Twelve of the studies found in the literature search investigate the link between different risk factors related to school and education such as low grades, bullying, budget cuts, lack of education, etc., and mental distress.
Associative factors from the literature search are:
The literature search identifies twenty-one studies. Among other things, the studies investigate factors such as the participation of young people in physical activity, their sleeping habits, smoking and alcohol consumption and the link between these habits and mental health.
It is important to emphasize that the studies consider links or correlations between different lifestyle factors and mental health rather than causes.
Associative factors from the literature search are:
Several of the studies on lifestyle factors and mental health have looked at potential gender differences and concluded that young women generally report more symptoms of mental distress than young men, which concurs with several studies into the extent and development of mental distress among young people in the Nordic Region.
14 studies from the literature search look at psychosocial problems such as loneliness, negative life events, bullying, self-harm, sexual abuse, the risk of psychiatric diagnoses among children in care, the link between the life satisfaction of parents and their children, emotional well-being, sexual orientation and transgenderism.
Associative factors from the literature search are:
Five studies from the literature search were identified as relating to immigrant youth and mental distress.
Associative factors from the literature search are:
Indigenous youth in communities across the Circumpolar North experience significant health disparities and poorer mental health, irrespective of the measurement method, than non-indigenous youthMacDonald et al. 2013. Arctic communities have experienced significant social and economic transitions and transformations over the last 50 years due to rapid changes in lifestyles and livelihoods across the Arctic. In the Nordic region, indigenous populations live in Greenland, Norway, Sweden, and Finland (Sapmi area).
Two scoping reviews in the literature search finds evidence of indigenous youth in communities across the Circumpolar North experiencing significant health issues and poorer mental health than non-indigenous youth. The children and youth of the Inuit and Sami population in the Nordic countries can be identified as a vulnerable group compared to the Nordic majority youth populations. Young Sami and Inuit especially in Greenland experience a higher degree of violence, abuse, suicidal thoughts, and suicide rates compared to their peers in the majority populations in the Nordic countriesIngemann et al. 2018; MacDonald et al 2013.
There is a transition in research to emphasizing resilience and supporting protective factors such as knowledge in traditions and indigenous culture, ethnic pride, kinship, close relationship with parents etc. to enhancing indigenous youth mental health.
The literature search has shown no direct causal relation between the increase in mental distress among young people and the use of the internet and social media. Nevertheless, there are indications that excessive use of social media may contribute to the development of young people’s mental distressOttosen & Andreasen, 2020.
13 studies from the literature search illustrate in different ways how the use of digital media can be a risk or a protective factor for mental distress.
Associative factors from the literature search are:
Several Nordic studies indicate an association between inequalities in society and the prevalence of emotional symptoms among youths in the last decade. Socio-economic factors are strongly associated with low mental well-being in a similar way to their association with common mental disorders, but they do not show a similarly strong association with high mental well-being.
Associative factors from the literature search are:
For a detailed description of the identified risk and protection factors as well as associative factors to the increase in mental distress, see the paper entitled Nordic Cooperation on Young People's Mental Health – A Cross-Nordic Mapping of Associative Factors to the Increase of Mental Distress among Youthhttps://pub.norden.org/temanord2022-522/.
The Network’s task has also been to map and describe interfaces between the health care and social services sectors in the Nordic region and provide examples of interventions or models of cooperation that cut across the two sectors based on a criterion of evidence of effect. The results of the mapping appear in the paper “Cross-Nordic collaboration and practice examples”.
The paper describes the organization of the health and social sectors in the Nordic countries as well as 17 examples of interventions for youth who express mental distress and/or with mental disorders that cut across the social and health sectors. The purpose of describing the organization of efforts in each country is to create an overview of the context in which the examples of practices can operate. The identified examples of interventions from practices can be used as inspiration for the implementation and/or development of identical or similar interventions across the Nordic region. The examples of practices were selected based on a number of specific criteria inter alia including being evaluated with positive results, having a clearly defined target group, being cross-cutting, that is involve both the health care and social services sectors and a clearly defined and described target group based on the Network’s defined target group.
Overall, our work shows that the division of responsibilities and cooperation between the health and social sectors in relation to the response to the mental health problems and mental disorders of youth vary across the Nordic countries. The countries are divided into regions and municipalities, which respond to the mental health problems suffered by youth in many ways. Since the division of responsibilities is different between countries, so is the cross-sectoral collaboration.
The examples of practices, all of which to a greater or lesser extent involve both the health care and the social services sector, target young people in mental distress or who have mental or emotional disorders. The examples are divided according to whether they are interventions or collaborative models/strategies. The interventions, in turn, are divided according to whether they are universal, selective or indicated interventionsUniversal interventions are interventions targeted at all youth, while selective and indicated interventions are targeted at youth who are at risk of developing a mental disorder and young people with incipient symptoms or signs of illness.. Most examples of practices are categorised as being selective efforts, but there are also a few examples of universal efforts and a single indicated effort.
Figure 1. Practice examples: Universal, selective and indicated interventions
Overall, our work shows that the most common elements of the identified collaboration models and strategies are interdisciplinary collaboration and formalised and standardised methods, respectively. Interdisciplinary collaboration in this context means that the professionals organize themselves into interdisciplinary teams to ensure a more comprehensive effort. The teams provide counselling to professionals who support youth in the target group or direct counselling to the young people themselves. The formalised and standardised methods show examples of how working from strategies and standardised and formalised methods can contribute to a clear framework for professionals.
Figure 2. Practice examples of cross-sectoral national strategy or collaboration models
For a detailed description of how health and social sectors are organized in the Nordic countries and the 17 examples of interventions for young people who express mental distress or who have mental or emotional disorders, please see the paper: Cross-Nordic collaboration and practice exampleshttps://pub.norden.org/temanord2022-502/.
As a conclusion to Mental Distress Among Nordic Youth Project, the Network is tasked with proposing a future joint Nordic research project that builds on the knowledge generated in connection with the Network's work on risk and protective factors for mental distress and effective cross-sectoral efforts.
In the first half of 2022, the Nordic network therefore held meetings with representatives from the Ministry of Social Affairs and Senior Citizens in Denmark, the Nordic Council of Ministers, and NordForskAn organization under the Nordic Council of Ministers that supports research cooperations between Nordic research groups.. The Network also arranged meetings with the Nordic Welfare CentreAn institution in the Nordic Council of Ministers' social and health sector. and NordregioA Nordic research, advisory and analysis institute under the Nordic Council of Ministers. to gather their opinions and perspectives for more cross-Nordic knowledge about youth in mental distress. In addition, the Nordic network wanted their input to a future research project and their suggestions for funding sources and research institutions that will be able to carry out the research project. A description of the various proposals for topics of a future cross-Nordic research project, which were mentioned at the meetings is found below. The proposals from the meetings for possible sources of funding and research institutions that could carry out a cross-Nordic research project are described thereafter.
The following proposals originates partly from the findings in the literature search as well as from the specific knowledge and perspectives found in the Nordic Network.
One of the studies included in our work showed that structural conditions can have a negative impact on the psychological and emotional well-being of school pupils, and that large classes with many pupils, schools with limited material resources and lack of access to special education can negatively affect the well-being of children and youth. A study of the framework and structures in schools could therefore be a good extension to the Nordic Network's identification of risk and protective factors for mental distress among youth; ref. Chapter 2.
According to the Nordic Network, it will be relevant to focus on the importance of frameworks and structures in primary and secondary schools for the well-being of children and youth in a future Nordic research project. The thesis behind the proposal is that there are various kinds of frameworks for schools in the Nordic countries. It may be differences in legislation and rules on e.g. the number of students in each class, the length of the school day, rules on the inclusion of pupils with special needs and special education, as well as on examinations, tests, assignments and grading, etc. In the same way, there may be differences in rules and legislation on physical school environments across the Nordic countries, including e.g. differences in rules regarding the layout and size of classrooms, indoor climate, outdoor areas and facilities, as well as opportunities for exercise and movement during the school day. A comparison of legislation and frameworks for schools in the individual Nordic countries as well as data on pupil well-being will give an indication of whether and how legislation and structural frameworks affect well-being, and whether certain frameworks and structures have a particularly negative or positive impact on the well-being of children and young people. The purpose of the study will thus be to contribute with knowledge about the importance of structures and frameworks in schools for the psychological well-being of children, and how to create the best framework for promoting well-being among children. What factors it will be relevant to investigate to compile a comparable picture of the framework across the Nordic countries will need to be clarified before any research project is initiated.
According to the Nordic Network, it will also be relevant to make a similar comparison of the structures and frameworks of secondary and higher education and the importance of this for the well-being of young people.
In 2019, the Icelandic Directorate for Health conducted a questionnaire survey, to which most kindergartens and primary schools and all secondary schools in Iceland responded. The purpose of the survey was to gain oversight of the status of mental health promotion in schools, prevention and support for children and youth in schools, and how the schools are promoting mental health and wellbeing among students. The survey also included questions to school staff on what they think is most needed to enhance promotion of mental health among students. The survey focused on ten different areas, including school policies and practices, equality and participation, and behaviour and communication.Embætti Landlæknis, Directorate of Health (2019): Geðrækt, forvarnir og stuðningur við börn og ungmenni í skólum á Íslandi Niðurstöður landskönnunar. The study may be used as an inspiration in connection with the implementation of the proposed research project on the importance of structures and frameworks in school for promoting well-being among children and youth.
Seven of the studies included in the Network's identification of risk and protective factors have examined associations between mental distress and various factors such as bullying, social support from schoolmates, teachers and parents, school-related stress, and trust in the classroom. Among other things, the studies show that experiencing social support from one's classmates and homeroom teacher, and going to a class with a high degree of trust among pupils and between pupils and teachers, increases the mental and emotional well-being of the pupils. Conversely, being subjected to bullying or attending a class with a low degree of trust and high degree of bullying increases mental distress among the pupils. One of the studies also concludes that efforts to prevent and reduce bullying and improve the social climate of the classroom are important elements in the work to promote good mental health and well-being of schoolchildren. In a future research project, it may therefore be relevant to investigate which school-based initiatives exist to prevent and reduce bullying and improve the social climate in schools in the Nordic countries.
As a supplement to the research project mentioned under chapter 4.2, or as an independent research project, the Network proposes a study on existing initiatives to promote mental health in primary schools in the Nordic region. Relevant research questions could be: 1) what promising or effective school-based initiatives to promote childhood mental health are there in the Nordic countries, and (2) what common features, if any, are there in the initiatives that have shown good effect?
The research project would be a contribution to existing knowledge on effective school-based initiatives in the Nordic region and their common features, so schools and other operators in the field in the Nordic countries can learn from each other's experiences and develop initiatives to promote the mental health and well-being of children and youth based on a qualified knowledge base.
Several of the included studies in the Nordic Network's work on risk and protective factors deal with children and adolescents' relationships with their parents and the correlation of this with their mental health and well-beingDuineveld et al. 2017; Nielsen et al. 2016; Dobewall et al. 2019; Runarsdottir et al. 2019.. The studies show, among other things, that the satisfaction parents express about life, and their socio-economic status, have an impact on their children's mental health and well-being, and that poverty in childhood in particular is a significant risk factor for future mental distress. However, none of the studies focuses on the importance of parenting and child rearing for the well-being of children and young people.
Based on the research mentioned above, a topic that will be relevant for a joint Nordic research project is current parenting and child-rearing practices and their importance for the mental and emotional well-being of children and young people.
In modern Nordic welfare societies, most children and youth spend many hours outside the home in day-care centres and schools. Although the primary responsibility for raising children remains with the parents, the responsibility is in our modern society divided between the home and the kindergarten, day care centre and the school. At the same time, parenting styles in the Nordic countries have changed, so that children and youth are being included and heard and asked about how they feel and what they want, in a greater extent than ever before. Children’s opinions are taken more seriously, and they are involved in decisions, which in many ways is positive because it equips them to dare to express themselves and makes them committed and interactive citizens. However, the disadvantage of the participatory and permissive parents that dominates in the Nordic region may be that some children and adolescents lack a solid framework for making their own decisions and may find it difficult to deal with the freedom and responsibility that comes with it.
In a future cross-Nordic research project, it will be relevant to examine characteristics on parenting and child rearing in the Nordic countries today, and what impact parents’ way of raising children has on the development and well-being of their children. Relevant research questions could be; what expectations are there for parenting today, and whether parents experience greater uncertainty and anxiety about doing something wrong in parenting than in the past? What impact does it have on the well-being of children and young people that they have more freedom, co-determination and responsibility than before, and that they spend more time in an institution and less time with their parents?
Finally, the Nordic Network proposes a joint Nordic research project focusing on the impact of social media on the mental health and well-being of children and youth. Over the past few decades, children and youth are using social media such as Facebook, Instagram etc. in a tremendously increasing trend across the Nordic region. According to a report by The Happiness Research Institute prepared for the Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic youth are heavy consumers of social media and their consumption is significantly higher than consumption among youth in the rest of EuropeThe Happiness Research Institute (2019): The report entitled #StyrPåSoMe – Is social media actually a threat to the well-being of our youth? was prepared for the Nordic Council of Ministers. .
In parallel with the increasing consumption of social media among young people, as we know already, there has also been an increase in the proportion of young people who report symptoms of mental distress. Researchers in the field disagree as to whether there is a correlation between the two trends.
On the one hand, there are researchers who argue that social media and digital technology in general, are the cause of the observed negative trends regarding the mental health of our youth. Several of the included studies in the Nordic Network's work examine the association between young people's use of digital media. Several of the studies examine the association between young people's use of digital media and mental well-being at the individual level. The results of these studiesOksanen et al. 2018; Mannikkö et al. 2015; Nuutinen et al. 2014; Salmela-Aro et al. 2017; Thorisdottir et al. 2020; Thorisdottir et al. 2019 indicate that young people’s online behaviour in general can explain a number of psychological, social, and physical symptoms among young people, as well as how gaming/gambling behaviour can negatively influence young people’s sleep, which can lead to depressive symptoms.Oksanen et al. 2018; Mannikkö et al. 2015
The report from The Happiness Research Institute concludes that the use of social media among young people cannot be judged as something clearly positive or negative for their well-being without addressing the context in which social media is used at the same time.Oksanen et al. 2018; Mannikkö et al. 2015 For example, it depends on which platforms young people use, whether they are active or passive social media users,Thorisdottir et al., (2019) defines active use of social media an act that “involves chatting, sharing photos, or status updates with a specific audience or posting other personal content that others can then comment or give likes” whereas “passive use refers to browsing, scrolling, reposting links, or looking at content from others” how much time they spend on social media, etc.
One of the studies included in the Network's work on risk and protective factors shows, in line with this, that passive use of social media by young people is related to increased symptoms of anxiety and depression, while active use of social media is related to reduced symptoms of anxiety and depressionThorisdottir et al. 2019.
The report from The Happiness Research Institute further concludes that – despite great public interest in the importance of social media consumption – there is still a lack of knowledge about how social media affects the well-being of young people, as the vast majority of studies cannot determine what is cause and what is effect. The Network's coverage includes several studies pointing out that – over the past decade – social media is now a major part of young people’s life” of young people, and quite little is known about how such media can affect young people's mental well-being. Two studies have investigated the association between young people's use of social media and their mental well-beingThorisdottir et al. 2020; Thorisdottir et al. 2019; Thorisdottir et al. 2020 where passive use is seemingly related to increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. The same symptoms are also seen in relation to young people's time spent on social media. The association between time spent on social media and mental distress is greater for girls than boys.
It is therefore still an open question whether the use of social media creates dissatisfaction among young people, or whether young people who fail to thrive are more likely to use social media. In a future cross-Nordic research project, it will therefore be relevant to establish data that can follow the development of the well-being of young people and consumption of social media over a longer period and thus contribute with knowledge about cause-and-effect relationships.
Several different sources of funding exist for a future cross-Nordic research project. Below are the two funding sources that the Nordic Network has identified as relevant, both of which fund research across the Nordic region.
There are several other sources of funding that are more or less relevant and should therefore be identified according to the topics of the research.
There are also several different research institutions in the Nordic countries that can be both collaborators and that can execute a future cross-Nordic research project. Below are the institutions that the Nordic Network wishes to highlight:
During the fifth meeting of the Network in May 2022, an evaluation of the functioning and cooperation of the Network was carried out.
Overall, the members of the Network agree that the project on mental distress among Nordic youth has been interesting and relevant.
However, it should also be mentioned that the project has been affected by COVID-19. Due to the pandemic, there have only been one physical meeting , which is considered to have had an impact on cooperation across the Nordic region.
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Nordic Council of Ministers (2022): Nordic Cooperation on Young People's Mental Health – A Cross-Nordic Mapping of Associative Factors to the Increase of Mental Distress Among Youth
Nordic Council of Ministers (2022): Nordic Cooperation on Young People's Mental Health – Cross-Nordic collaboration and practice examples
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